New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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Maintenance №:2 Year:2023


BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Ilshat Talgatovich Mirsayapov, Ilnur Mansurovich Gimatdinov  Investigation of a steel-reinforced concrete beam with a partial embedment of an I-section in concrete based on a diagrammatic calculation methodСтр.6
Resume:

Problem statement. To date, in the set of rules that are in force in our country, there are no regulatory documents specifically for the design of steel-reinforced concrete structures, namely, when a steel I-beam is embedded in concrete. In this regard, the issue of studying new types of steel-reinforced concrete structures becomes relevant. Based on the known laws applied to steel and reinforced concrete structures, it becomes possible to study new calculation methods. The purpose of the work is to develop methods for calculating a new type of steel-reinforced concrete beams. Tasks of the work are to consider a three-line deformation diagram given in the normative documentation and, based on this diagram, give formulas that describe the operation of a new type of steel-reinforced concrete structure. Results. The presented technique helps to calculate the maximum load that a steel-reinforced concrete structure can withstand. Conclusions. The presented calculation method helps to analytically calculate a new type of steel-reinforced concrete structure, considering various calculation options. The diagram method describes the operation of the structure, since it is based on the calculation method for given materials.

Keywords:
steel-reinforced concrete, steel-reinforced concrete beam, analytical calculation methods, calculation method for steel-reinforced concrete structures
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Damir A. Ayupov  Stabilization of bituminous polymer dispersions by surfactantsСтр.17
Resume:

Problem statement. Polymer bitumen binders are widely used in road and roof construction, as well as for the production of waterproofing, sealing and anti-corrosion materials. One of the most significant and common for all polymer modified bitumens (PMB) is their tendency to delamination, which complicates their storage and transportation. At the same time, it is known that surfactants can be effective stabilizers of dispersed systems. In addition, surfactants are widely used in PMBs, not as stabilizers, but as adhesive additives. Their stabilizing effectiveness in binders has not yet been studied. The effectiveness of surfactants for stabilizing bitumen-polymer dispersions is known by the example of bitumen-latex aqueous emulsions. Surfactants are used in them as emulsifiers, however, emulsions still have, as a rule, even greater stratification than PMB, which is associated with the low viscosity of the dispersion medium. All this significantly limits the possibilities for the wide production and use of bituminous polymer dispersions: binders and emulsions. Therefore, the study of the stabilizing effectiveness of the surfactants used in them is an urgent task. The aim of the research is to study the stabilizing effectiveness of surfactants used to stabilize polymer bitumen binders and to develop an effective surfactant for stabilizing bitumen emulsions. To achieve the goal, the following tasks were solved: 1. To study the composition of surfactants used in PMBs. 2. To determine their influence on the properties of binders. 3. To study the stabilizing effectiveness of the applied surfactants. 4. To develop an effective surfactant for the stabilization of bitumen emulsions. 5. To study the rheological properties of bitumen emulsions. 6. To study the properties of bitumen polymer binders obtained by coagulation of bitumen emulsions. Results. The main result of the study of surfactants in PMB is the conclusion about their low stabilizing efficiency. A binary surfactant has been developed to stabilize bitumen emulsions. Conclusions. Surfactants for PMB stabilization are ineffective. Alternative methods are needed to solve this problem. An effective binary emulsifier for bitumen emulsions has been developed.

Keywords:
PMB stability, PMB delamination, bitumen emulsion, PMB, sprayed waterproofing, liquid rubber, emulsifier
Nina N. Morozova, Evgeny G. Gulyakov  Properties of concrete based on zeolite-containing binderСтр.27
Resume:

The improvement of the technical properties of cements and concretes based on them, as the most widely used building materials, leads to their continuous improvement. One of the ways to improve the quality of cements is to dilute it with other materials, which at the same time allows controlling the properties and structure formation of concretes, reduce their cost, increase environmental friendliness and durability. These materials include zeolite-containing minerals. The Republic of Tatarstan has one of the largest industrially developed deposits of natural zeolite-containing rocks in Russia. Their combination with cement expands the raw material base and reduces the clinker dependence of the region. The purpose of the research is to identify and justify the effective use of natural zeolite-containing rocks as an active mineral additive in cement concrete, replacing part of the cement and positively affecting the durability and physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Results. As a result of the research, the activity of zeolite-containing rocks of the Tatarsko-Shatrashanskoye deposit and the Sokirnyanskoye deposit was determined. The specific surface of ground zeolite-containing rocks has been estimated. Tests of cement stone samples with the addition of zeolite-containing rocks for sulfate resistance were carried out, according to the results of which it was found that samples with zeolite-containing rock of the Tatarsko-Shatrashansky deposit have lower values of relative deformations than control and samples with the addition of zeolite-containing rock of the Sokirnyansky deposit. In order to identify patterns in the use of zeolite-containing rocks in the composition of cement-containing materials, it is advisable to evaluate the compositions for contraction shrinkage. As a result, concrete compositions based on a zeolite-containing cement binder were developed, the tests of which showed that the use of the zeolite-containing rock of the Tatarsko-Shatrashansky deposit is an effective way to save the main component in concrete - cement. Conclusions. The value of the revealed results lies in the justification for the use of zeolite-containing rocks as a replacement for part of the cement in the concrete composition, which contributes to the effective use of the most expensive component. At the same time, the physical and mechanical properties of the materials are preserved and the resistance to sulfate corrosion is increased.

Keywords:
concrete, active mineral additive, zeolite, cement, pozzolanic activity, sulfate resistance, contraction
Vladimir Z. Abdrakhimov  Recycling of inter-shale clay and slag from ferrotitanium smelting into clinker brick production Стр.40
Resume:

Problem statement. Considering the depletion of reserves and the shortage of natural traditional aluminosilicate conditioned raw materials for the manufacture of high-burning (more than 1200oC) ceramic materials, it is necessary to find and investigate production waste instead of traditional raw materials. Advanced Western countries have shown this experience, and they also used it as a tool to protect the environment from various negative consequences. The aim of the work is to obtain clinker bricks with improved physical and mechanical properties. The objectives of the research are to study the possibility of using technogenic raw materials, the development of compositions for the production of clinker bricks, and to study the effect of slag from the smelting of ferrotitanium on the physical and mechanical properties of clinker bricks based on intershale clay. Results. The article shows that it is possible to obtain a clinker brick based on intershale clay without the use of aluminum-containing (A12O3 >70%) slag from ferrotitanium smelting. The introduction of slag from ferrotitanium smelting into the compositions of ceramic masses contributes to the production of clinker bricks with high physical and mechanical properties. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry and for the environment is that the use of man-made raw materials (industrial waste) makes it possible to obtain clinker bricks without the use of traditional natural raw materials, expands the raw material base for the production of building materials and promotes waste disposal.

Keywords:
inter-shale clay, slag from ferrotitanium smelting, clinker brick, recycling, physical and mechanical parameters
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS AND LIGHTING
Dmitriy V. Kraynov, Ilya A. Maslennikov  Climatic data for calculating non-stationary heat losses through building envelopes in the ground Стр.50
Resume:

Statement of the problem. The climate model is an important factor in assessing heat loss through building envelopes. Depending on the purpose of the calculation, as well as the period of observation, the choice of climate data may be different. In this regard, the existing normative literature may not be enough. The article describes an approach to the selection of climate data. The analysis of current sources with archival weather data was carried out. The purpose of this work is to prepare climatic data for calculating heat transfer through building envelopes in non-stationary mode. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were solved: search for reliable sources of archival climate data, processing and analysis of the obtained climatic data on the example of average daily outdoor temperatures. Relevance. The results obtained can be used for numerical experiments, as well as application in engineering methods for determining the heat loss of enclosing structures. Results. The article presents the results of processing data from weather archives for 10 years for Kazan. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results is that their use in the course of numerical studies will improve the accuracy and reliability of the results.

Keywords:
, climate data, heat loss, building envelope
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, WATER CONSERVATION CONSTRUCTION
Dmitry E. Polivanov, Alexey A. Semenov  Investigation of the mode of water extraction by a mixer from a water supply systemСтр.60
Resume:

Problem statement. Currently used deterministic models and methods for calculating water consumption in water supply systems and forecasting their distribution through the pipeline network do not accurately reflect the stochastic nature of water consumption, which actually determines the mode of operation of a real water supply system. One of the main factors determining the formation and change in time of water consumption supplied for household and drinking needs and transported through pipelines of water supply systems is the mode of operation of water sampling valves and/or equipment. The purpose of the work is to study the operating mode of the mixer installed at a specific point of the water supply system. The objectives of the study are obtaining statistical data on the operation of the water intake valve (mixer) for a certain period of time; processing the data obtained and comparing empirical results with calculated (theoretical); plotting a time series graph, a distribution density graph and a graph of the distribution function of the second water flow by the mixer; selection of the theoretical law of the distribution of the value of the second water flow by the mixer based on the available data. Results. The paper presents the results of a study of the mode of water extraction by a mixer from the water supply system. In the form of graphs, it is clearly shown that the operating mode of the mixer cannot be characterized by a specific value and is subject to a certain distribution, which in the first approximation (in form and basic numerical characteristics) can be defined as a Weibull distribution. The comparison of the empirical values of the second water flow by the mixer with their calculated (theoretical) analogues is given and it is shown that the difference ranges from 44,4% to 95,6%. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained during the implementation of this study consists in a visual demonstration of the imperfection of the available calculation methods, justification of the need for research in this area, as well as the development and improvement of mathematical models of water supply systems.

Keywords:
water-collecting valves, water supply system, operating mode, calculated flow rate, second flow rate, hourly flow rate, water flow sensor
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
Murat N. Serazutdinov  Analytical solutions for curved rods based on the relations for a rectilinear rodСтр.70
Resume:

The article presents analytical solutions and a method for calculating curved rods based on the use of formulas for calculating deformations of a rectilinear rod. The relevance of the results obtained is due to the fact that structural elements in the form of curved rods are traditionally used in construction, and recently the range of applications of curved structures has been significantly expanded due to the use of new structural materials - composites with glass filler. The Kosser-Timoshenko hypotheses are accepted, analytical solutions are obtained by the variational method using the Lagrange functional. The peculiarity of the method is that the formulas for calculating deformations do not include parameters characterizing the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a curved rod. Previously, this method was used to obtain numerous calculations of the statics of rod systems in linear and physically nonlinear formulations, as well as for calculations of thin-walled curved rods. Numerical methods were used. The article presents solutions for curved rods obtained by the analytical method. The main purpose of the research presented in this paper is to obtain analytical solutions that allow determining the stress-strain state of curved rods, to show the versatility, originality and comparative simplicity of the method. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: select a curved rod, the results of calculating the stress-strain state of which are published in the scientific literature; determine the type of functions approximating the desired parameters; describe in detail the analytical calculations of the method; show the reliability of the analytical results obtained based on comparing the results of the solution with known data.

Keywords:
curved rods, variational method, analytical solutions
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, SUBWAYS, AERODROMES, BRIDGES AND TRANSPORT TUNNELS
Galina V. Tlyavlina   Methods of scientific substantiation of regulatory requirements in the field of engineering protection of transport structures from wave impact Стр.80
Resume:

Problem statement. The development of norms and standards in construction necessarily includes stages of scientific research to substantiate the requirements contained therein. In the field of protection of transport structures (railways, highways, bridges, etc.) from wave impact, the methods of scientific justification have their own characteristics due to the goals and objectives of research and methods of obtaining data. Since there are many unlit issues in the regulatory framework in this area, the tasks of improving the quality of research by structuring an approach to their solution are highly relevant and of great practical importance. The purpose of the research reflected in this work is to study the methods of scientific substantiation of the requirements of regulatory documents in the field of protection of transport structures from wave impact for the development and improvement of the regulatory framework in transport construction. The tasks of the study are description of research methods used for the development of the regulatory framework in the field of safety of transport structures in the conditions of wave impact; systematization of data obtained by these methods for the development of regulatory documents in the field under consideration. Results. In this paper, the features of the approach to the scientific substantiation of norms and standards (Codes of rules and National standards) for the protection of transport structures from wave action are considered. An algorithm for the development of norms and standards in the designated area is presented. The methods of scientific research, such as field observations and surveys, physical and mathematical modeling, used by the author to substantiate the requirements laid down in regulatory documents, are described. Systematization of data for the development of regulatory documents on coastal protection issues has also been carried out. The information about the normative documents developed under the guidance of the author on the basis of the conducted research is given. Conclusions. Reliability and safety of operation of transport facilities on the coasts of seas, lakes and reservoirs is largely ensured by effective and reasonable design solutions for their protection from wave impact. Therefore, the issues of improving and developing the regulatory framework in the field of engineering protection of transport structures are relevant and have important practical significance.

Keywords:
coastal protection structures, design and survey work, rationing, standardization, transport facilities, wave impact
URBAN PLANNING, RURAL PLANNING
Olga N. D’yachkova, Alexander E. Mikhailov  Analysis of data on accessible public green spaces in St. PetersburgСтр.92
Resume:

Problem statement. The problem of sustainable development of cities is their provision with accessible public green spaces. The list of accessible public green spaces in St. Petersburg is established by law. The information that is established in the law was the source material for the work. The goal of the work was to create and test a tool for the analysis of data on accessible public green spaces. The research objectives are to extract and compress data, choose and justify a mathematical apparatus for the analysis of data, present data as a dashboard. Results. We have developed a method for presenting initial information about accessible public green spaces in St. Petersburg. We presented the result of the data analysis in a form that is easy to interpret. Conclusions. Analytical dashboard may be needed in urban planning activities in the design of "green" infrastructure of St. Petersburg.

Keywords:
city, green spaces, data, visualization, histogram, regression analysis
ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY
Tatiana A. Evstratova, Layla M. Kuleeva, Valery N. Kupriyanov, Sergey Al. Malakhov, Sergey M. Mikhailov  Modern trends in the field of artistic synthesis in architecture and design of the cityСтр.101
Resume:

Problem statement. The development of artistic synthesis in modern architecture and city design has become a topical issue in architectural design theory and practice, which has led to the emergence of such new forms as art objects and installations, anamorphic and kinetic media facades, "virtual" false facades, video mapping and video art, holography and cinematography, op art, etc. The aim of the study was to identify features, new forms and modern trends in the field of artistic synthesis in the architecture and design of the city. The objectives of the study are to identify the factors that influenced the development of artistic synthesis, as well as to systematize the modern forms of its manifestation (trends) in the architecture and design of the city. Results. The study showed that with the development of design, traditional forms of synthesis of fine and plastic arts with architecture significantly expand their object boundaries: from individual architectural and object forms to spatial artistic synthesis in the design of architectural ensembles and the creation of complex multi-aspect programmes for the artistic transformation of the city as a whole. And today it becomes appropriate to talk about a multi-level artistic synthesis of architecture, fine and plastic arts with design. Conclusions. The results obtained contribute to the creation of principles for the use of new forms of artistic synthesis, the formulation of further tasks of architectural design theory and practice.

Keywords:
synthesis, design, architecture, art, supergraphics, street art, op art, interactivity, LED technology, media facades, video mapping
Hanifa G.Nadyrova, Rinat K.Mukhitov, Layla Sh.Sayfullina, Adel I.Sibgatullin  Development of the architectural and planning structure of the town of Mamadysh, Kazan province until the beginning of the twentieth centuryСтр.113
Resume:

Problem statement. Small historical towns make up the main urban planning link in the settlement system of Russia and Tatarstan. Formed over several centuries, small towns still preserve the identity of the historical and architectural environment, customs and traditions of Tatarstan. The question of establishing the potential of the historical and architectural environment of Mamadysh from the end of the XVIII centery, when the former Troitskoye settlement received the status of a town, and until the beginning of the twentieth century, the time of profound socio-economic changes in Russia. The tasks are to investigate the urban landscapes of Mamadysh; to analyze the development of the layout and architecture of Mamadysh before the beginning of the XX centery and to establish the periodization of the development of the architectural and planning structure of the town, to identify the features of the architectural and urban planning organization of Mamadysh at the beginning of the XX centery. To achieve this goal, bibliographic sources and archival documents were involved, including historical plans of the town of Mamadysh of various periods, full-scale surveys of the development of the historical part of the modern town were carried out. Conclusions. The study of the development of these small towns and their cultural heritage is of scientific importance for deepening the knowledge of the architectural and urban history and theory of architecture of Russia and Tatarstan. The practical significance of the results obtained for the architectural and construction industry is the identification of the historical and architectural potential of the town, its sustainable development in the future and the formation of the tourism sector in it.

Keywords:
architectural and planning structure, development, transformation, features
Artur A. Samoilov, Ekaterina V. Pokka  Typology of post-industrial territories based on the analysis of world experience in the development of industrial cities in crisis Стр.126
Resume:

This article discusses the issues related to the development and reorganization of post-industrial territories. To solve these issues, the study of world experience in the development of post-industrial territories is being conducted in order to form a typology of reorganization of post-industrial spaces. The purpose of this study is to form a typology for the development of post-industrial territories, to give possible ways of their sustainable development. The objectives of this work are to study the period of decline and growth of the most characteristic industrial cities in the process of globalization (on the example of the cities of Detroit and Pittsburgh); to analyze world experience in the development of post-industrial territories; to form a typology of development of post-industrial territories on the basis of identified factors. Results. The paper presents the results of the study of the cities of Detroit and Pittsburgh, on their basis, key problems and features were identified. Seven types of development of post-industrial territories with different characteristics were identified. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture lies in the fact that a unique typology of the development of post-industrial territories was revealed, based on the experience of the reorganization of the cities of Detroit and Pittsburgh.

Keywords:
Post-industrial territories, reorganization, typology, development, renovation
ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY. HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Anna A. Kachemtseva  Classification of graphic sources in the context of restoration of historical and architectural heritage Стр.135
Resume:

Problem statement. The most comprehensive information about a historical and cultural heritage site to be restored can be found in the sources that present its data graphically. However, despite the rich history of graphic sources studying, their science-based classification has not yet been formed. The subject of the research is graphic sources in the restoration of the historic and architectural heritage. The goal of the work is to develop a classification of graphic sources in the context of restoration of the historic and architectural heritage. The aims of the study are specifying the set of classification objects, identifying the feature of the classification, arranging the objects of the classification by their respective types and subtypes, describing each classification type. It is assumed that the classification can be developed in two levels, with the allocation of elements based on the feature of the function. In accordance with the hypothesis, the system-functional method was applied to achieve the objective. During the study the following scientific results have been obtained: the classification of graphic sources in the context of restoration of historical and architectural heritage has been developed, which meets the requirements of universality and which includes design, fixation and scientific types. With the unchanged basis of classification, which ensures the completeness of coverage of the classified objects, the clearly defined types of graphic sources have been identified and their content has been described. Conclusions. The developed classification of graphic sources makes it possible to determine unambiguously that the graphic source belongs to a certain classification type. This, in turn, provides a more efficient collection of graphic material and pre-project historical and cultural analysis. Areas of application of the results: 1) development of a methodology for assessing the information potential of graphic sources of each type; 2) in practical activities on the use of graphic sources as the basis for the restoration of historical and architectural heritage.

Keywords:
graphic source, classification of graphic sources, restoration of cultural heritage, theory and history of architecture
Sabina Il. Kalimullina, Galina N. Aidarova  Features of the historical and architectural formation of regional trade and market complexes on the example of the Volga regionСтр.146
Resume:

Problem statement. Insufficient knowledge of trade and market complexes, the formation of their typological features has an impact on the completeness of scientific knowledge and the practice of architectural design. The purpose of the study is to identify the historical and architectural periods of the formation of architectural types of trade and market complexes. The research objectives are to identify the main stages of the historical and architectural formation of trade and market complexes; to classify trade and market complexes; to establish the types of trade and market complexes of the Volga region, including Tatarstan; to define concepts and terms related to trade and market complexes. Results. The article considers 4 stages of the historical formation of retail facilities and complexes depending on economic and technological structures. The basic architectural types of spaces for trade processes are revealed: spontaneous and organized, open and closed, single and complex. Open type: rows of shopping stalls, coastal rows of shopping stalls, market squares, markets, regional and citywide fairs; closed type: caravanserais, merchant courts, arcades, shopping centers; their structural characteristics are given. Conclusions. Street trading was a linear organization along the house space, through trading shops. Markets were divided into open areas with commercial covered or open rows, or living rooms with several merchant shops. A bazaar was an open square or a covered large room with shopping arcade. Fairs represent seasonal trade and mobile, and therefore the location of such trade is possible in many urban spaces. Shopping centers are represented by large closed-type spaces, which include a variety of functions with trading points.

Keywords:
development of trade and market complexes, classification, features of spatial organization of fairs, bazaars, markets
Karim A. Ibrahim, Radwan Alshawaf, Khaled Aboselo  Visual Identity of Islamic Schools and the Impact of War on It. Case study (Al-Sultaniya School in Aleppo)Стр.163
Resume:

Problem statement. The concept of identity has a deep connection with the urban architectural heritage. It allows defining the identifiers of visual identity, both for individual buildings and urban development. However, there is a problem not only of establishing the visual identity of an object or urban environment, but also of its loss in the course of military activities. Valuable architectural monuments were destroyed in the Syrian city of Aleppo. The problem is connected not only with the loss of the old historical identity and cultural heritage, but also with the loss of the historical appearance of the city. The purpose of the work is to determine the visual identity of Islamic schools and their role and significance in shaping the identity of the historical city of Aleppo in Syria on the example of the cultural heritage site of the Al-Sultaniya school, destroyed during the war. The objectives of the study are to document the visual identity of Islamic schools, influencing the formation of the identity of the city of Aleppo; to emphasize the visual identity of the city of Aleppo and analyze its elements; to suggest a way to restore the considered identity in case of loss. The results of the study consist in establishing the identifiers of Islamic schools as heritage sites (silhouette, architectural style, etc.) and their role in shaping the visual identity of the historical city. Islamic schools played a special role in shaping the historical skyline of the city. The importance of this study lies in the fact that the significance of Islamic schools is established, since they have the characteristics of a mosque and a school, which, together with their architectural features, play an important role in shaping the visual identity of the center of Aleppo. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architectural and construction industry in Syria lies in the fact that the significant role of Islamic schools, along with other types of public buildings, has been revealed in the formation of the visual identity of the city of Aleppo and its restoration will require the reconstruction (revival) of such buildings as the Al-Sultaniya school. In a theoretical aspect these conclusions are also important for the architectural and construction industry in Russia.

Keywords:
identity, visual identity, Islamic schools, war, Aleppo
 
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