New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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Maintenance №:4 Year:2020


FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Mirsayapov Ilizar T.  Punching settlement of raft-pile foundation under cyclic loadingСтр.6
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns of development of punching settlement of raft-pile foundations. During cyclic loading, the raft-pile foundation settlement consists of three components: the conditional foundation settlement, the settlement due to compression of the pile and the pile punching settlement. The draft of the raft-pile foundation significantly changes the load distribution on the piles in the raft-pile foundation. Under cyclic loading, the regularities of the precipitation of raft-pile foundations are insufficiently studied. Results. The main results of the study include the fact that the author established a method for determining punching settlement of raft-pile foundation under cyclic loading. This process is considered in a spatial formulation, taking into account the joint deformation of all elements of the system «pile cap – piles – soil of inter-pile space – soil below the toe of the pile». The redistribution of forces between the system elements in the process of cyclic loading due to the development of deformation of the soil, pile cap and piles in the associated conditions is considered. The stresses in certain specific zones of the system are determined by solving 4 quasistatic equations together. The precipitation of the raft-pile foundation punching occurs when the stress under the fifth pile exceeds the fatigue strength of the soil during triaxial cyclic compression. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that the proposed method allows more accurate assessment of the stress-strain state of individual elements and the draught of the punching plate-pile foundations under cyclic loading with account of redistribution of efforts between the elements of the system «slab raft foundation – pile – soil mismanage space and the soil below the pile toe», which is a significant contribution to the theory of calculation of piled raft foundations and provides saving of concrete up to 15 % compared to existing methods.

Keywords:
raft-pile foundation, cyclic loading, piles, pile cap, soil, stress, triaxial loading, punching, settlement, adhesion, tangential stress.
Siraziev L.F., Nabiev R.R.  Experimental studies of the soil layers thickness influence on the stress-strain state of a layered soil base of slab foundationСтр.15
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of stress redistribution in a three-layer soil base depending on the changes in the thickness of geological layers. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the dependence of the stress-strain state of the soil mass on the thickness of the geological layers composing it, which differ in lithological composition, strength and deformation properties; to establish the boundaries of zones of limiting equilibrium in heterogeneous soil bases in the presence of relatively weak layers. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in establishing the regularity of the redistribution of stresses and deformations at depth and in a horizontal plane in three-layer soil foundations.

Keywords:
slab foundation, layered ground basis, stress-strain state.
BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Zamaliev F.S., Fekir El Kahina  Numerical and experimental studies of prestressed steel-reinforced concrete ribbed slabs and beam with prestressing reinforcement without adhesion to concreteСтр.23
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research work is to analyze the research methods of prestressed steel-reinforced concrete beams and slabs with prestressing reinforcement without adhesion to concrete. The tasks are – the analysis of domestic and foreign technical literature on assessing the stress-strain state of prestressed steel-concrete and steel-reinforced concrete, both insulated beams and beams as part of a ribbed monolithic floor, both with reinforcement working together with concrete, and isolated, without connection with concrete. The task is also to assess the effect of transverse reinforcement of beams on the stress-strain state of a ribbed prestressed plate from longitudinal prestressed reinforcement located in the rib-beam, based on the analysis of existing approaches. Results. The main research results consist in analyzing the current approach in assessing the strength of steel-reinforced concrete beams and slabs, in identifying the stress-strain state of a prestressed bending steel-reinforced concrete and steel-concrete element consisting of a beam and a slab, in assessing the strength of prestressed beams as part of a ribbed floor with prestressed reinforcement without adhesion with concrete. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in identifying the stress-strain state of a bent steel-reinforced concrete element. The results of research, assessment of the strength of steel-reinforced concrete beams and floors can be used in the construction of ribbed slabs and beams of new buildings in steel-reinforced concrete, wood-concrete, precast-monolithic reinforced concrete versions and in the restoration of floors of buildings that have served their standard service life.

Keywords:
steel-reinforced concrete structures, prestressed elements, stressed state, reinforcement without adhesion to concrete.
Kraynov D.V., Maslennikov I.A.  Calculation of the reduced heat transfer resistance of translucent structures made of aluminum profilesСтр.35
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to determine the specific heat loss of multi-chamber aluminum profiles of translucent structures by considering the influence of the material of the glass unit spacer. The primary method of research is the calculation of two-dimensional stationary temperature fields. Results. Based on the results of the numerical simulation we calculated the thermal technical characteristics of the aluminum profile of various versions and determined the influence of the material for the manufacture of the spacer frame on the heat loss through the elements. Based on the obtained data we performed the calculation of the reduced heat transfer resistance of a translucent enclosing construction with a different layout of frame profiles. Conclusions. The significance of research results for construction lies in the possibility of using the specific heat losses of multi-chamber aluminum profiles for calculating the thermal characteristics of translucent structures with a random layout of profiles, which is especially important at the design stage. It is shown that a significant proportion (30-48 %) of heat losses through translucent structures is additional heat loss through an aluminum profile. Depending on the selected configuration of the translucent structure, the reduced heat transfer resistance can vary within 15 %.

Keywords:
reduced heat transfer resistance, translucent structure, specific heat loss, profile, spacer.
Mirsayapov Ilizar T., Garifullin D.R.  Stress-strain state of normal sections of reinforced concrete elements under cyclic inelastic deformation of reinforcementСтр.44
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the stress-strain state of reinforced concrete structures under low-cycle loading with inelastic deformation of the longitudinal working reinforcement Results. Based on the results of the study, the development of inelastic deformations in the longitudinal stretched reinforcement makes significant changes in the stress-strain state of the normal cross-section of the bent reinforced concrete element under low-cycle loading in comparison with the case of elastic deformation of the reinforcement. At the same time, there is an uneven development of reinforcement deformations due to the presence of cracks in the concrete of the stretched zone, as well as secondary cracks that begin at the source of normal cracks and develop in the directions parallel or slightly inclined to the compressed face of the elements. Analytical studies of the influence of higher-specified factors on the stress-strain state of normal sections of a reinforced concrete element in the zone of compressed bending are performed. Based on the research results, the equations of the mechanical state of concrete of the compressed zone and the stretched longitudinal zone of the reinforcement under inelastic deformation of the reinforcement are developed. Conclusions. The significance of the results for theories of reinforced concrete and the construction industry includes the fact that established on the basis of theoretical studies the stress-strain state of normal sections in the zone of pure bending under cyclic loading allows more accurate assessment of the mechanical concrete of the compression zone and the longitudinal main reinforcement in terms of cyclic inelastic deformation of the reinforcement, which is a significant contribution to the theory of fatigue strength to ensure a saving of concrete and steel reinforcement up to 20 % compared to the same calculation methods.

Keywords:
low-cycle endurance, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, inelastic deformations yield strength, normal sections, cracks, normal stresses, compressed zone concrete, cycle asymmetry coefficient.
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Makarenko S.V., Vasiliev K.O., Khokhryakov O.V., Khozin V.G.  The production of ash-based building ceramics based on ash-and-slag waste from thermal power plants of the Irkutsk region is an example of the best available technology for their disposalСтр.54
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the work is to assess the possibility and efficiency of using ash and slag waste from the Irkutsk region on the example of ash and slag waste from the dump of the Novo-Ziminskaya CHP in the technology of producing ash ceramics. Results. The chemical composition of the ash by X-ray diffraction analysis was determined. Using the method of mathematical planning, the optimal technological indicators and the main physical and mechanical characteristics of ash ceramics (density, water absorption, complete shrinkage and compressive strength) were established. The kinetics of changes in the strength of molded specimens was studied depending on several factors: compacting pressure, percentage of flux, the content of superplasticizer used to improve the forming ability of the charge and reduce the water content. The results of the work are presented in the form of a regression equation and tables that clearly reflect the relationship between strength and the above factors. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the development of ash ceramics compositions that meet the requirements of the current regulatory documentation. Good technical performance has been achieved, including its appearance and surface quality, which will allow the use of ash ceramics for the production of facing products. The optimum of technological parameters (compacting pressure, flux and superplasticizer content) and their effect on compressive strength have been determined.

Keywords:
ash ceramics, ash-and-slag waste of thermal power plant, superplasticizer, strength.
Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Galautdinov A.R., Garafiev А.М.  Structure and properties of fiber composites based on modified mineral bindersСтр.62
Resume:

Problem statement. Currently, the volume of production of modified fiber composites based on mineral binders tends to decrease, which is associated with a drop in demand for them due to the appearance on the market of alternative materials, including foreign ones. Traditionally obtained fibrous composite materials and products have several disadvantages, such as significant specific gravity, low physical and mechanical characteristics and durability, which significantly limit the range and scope of their application. This raises the significant interest in the development of modified fibrous composite materials based on mineral binders, the study of the processes of their structure formation, properties and improvement of production technology. Results. The paper studies the role of the reinforcing fiber type in the formation of the structure and properties of composites based on cement and gypsum binders. It is shown that the maximum strength of fiber-cement composites is provided at a degree of grinding of cellulose fibers of 30-40°ShR with their content in the matrix in an amount of 5-6 % of the mass of solid components, the best indicators are achieved with a specific surface of quartz sand of 310 m2/kg. Revealed that the optimal coefficient of fiber reinforcement of a gypsum-cement-pozzolanic matrix with cellulose fibers is 0,5-1 % of the binder mass at a degree of grinding of cellulose fibers of 30°ShR. Based on the analysis of the microstructure of the studied composites, established a positive effect of cellulose fibers on the structure and properties of finished products. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the possibility of obtaining fiber composites based on mineral binders with improved performance characteristics and durability, which will expand the scope of their application and increase their competitiveness in comparison with analogs.

Keywords:
building materials, composite materials, dispersed reinforcement, mineral binders, cement, gypsum, structure.
Smirnov D.S., Garaev T.R., Sungatullin T.Z., Lobanova A.S.  Development of a mathematical model for optimizing the composition of concreteСтр.72
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the optimal grain composition and to conduct an experimental test of the mathematical apparatus for predicting optimal grain compositions. Results. The main results of the study are the selection of technological parameters and target functions. Seven compositions with the best indicators were identified and used to determine the change in the compressive strength of concrete for different cement consumption. Also, the influence of cement and its consumption on the composition structure was evaluated. Based on the formed experimental data, it was determined that the mechanism for setting the specific weight of values at the surrounding points was inversely proportional to the distances from the surrounding points to the desired point, at which the functions were predicted. The proposed forecasting mechanism is implemented in the Mathcad environment. Conclusions. The results are significant for the construction industry because of the development of the mathematical apparatus for forecasting and selecting the composition of concrete with the peculiarities of the grain structure of large and small fillers and their mixtures for different regions through proper selection of the ratio between large and small filler, which gives the best structure of the mixture, providing the best mechanical characteristics.

Keywords:
grain composition, forecasting apparatus, ultimate strength, coefficient of determination, optimization.
Smirnov D.S., Yagund E.M., Brodneva V.E.  Assessment of the impact of cellulose impurities on the properties of crushed stone mastic asphalt concreteСтр.80
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of cellulosic impurities on the properties of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete (SMAC), consider the properties of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete, which fundamentally combines the advantages of impact concrete and maximum structural asphalt concrete, study the influence of various types of stabilizing additives on the characteristics of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete. Results. The main results of the study are to identify the regularity of the change in physical and mechanical properties depending on the stabilizing additive used. Studies of IR-spectra, tests for indicators of compressive strength, shear resistance, crack resistance were carried out. The regularity of increasing the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixture in a composition containing the stabilizing additive was revealed. This is due to the high content of calcium carbonate in it, which forms stronger chemisorption bonds with bitumen at the phase interface. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry is that in the study of the dependence of the properties of crushed stone-mastic asphalt concrete on the used stabilizing additive with different content of calcium carbonate, it was found that the use of a stabilizing additive with high content of calcium carbonate increases the physical, mechanical and operational properties of asphalt concrete.

Keywords:
asphalt concrete, bitumen, strength, shear resistance, fine-fiber aggregate, IR-spectroscopy method.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION
Zaitsev V.O., Bogdanov A.N.  Monitoring of buildings in BIM-complexes during operation, overhaul and reconstruction on the example of the «Zarya» stadiumСтр.88
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the article is to study the methodology of automated continuous monitoring of buildings during operation using BIM-technologies. Development of an action plan in emergencies arising during the operation, overhaul and reconstruction of buildings. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the benefits of using a continuous building monitoring system in BIM technologies. An algorithm for making decisions in the event of critical deformations of structures provoking emergencies during the operation of the building, overhaul and reconstruction has been developed. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is in reducing the time frame and simplifying the procedure for conducting construction control during the operation of buildings; in accelerating decision-making on structural elements of facilities in identifying critical deviations from design indicators; in the possibility of continuous monitoring during the operation of the facility.

Keywords:
construction control, BIM-technology, automated monitoring, deformation, reconstruction.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
Varsegova E.V., Osipova L.E., Osipov E.V.  Numerical simulation of air flows in a low-pressure ejector systemСтр.96
Resume:

Problem statement. Production processes are accompanied by the release of flammable, explosive, and substances that are hazardous to health of workers, the composition and volume of which is determined by the production technology. Industrial ventilation systems move large volumes of air, purify the air from various pollutants, or dilute the concentration of harmful substances to the maximum permissible concentration values. It is rather difficult to single out typical solutions for the construction of industrial ventilation systems. CFD-modelling methods can help in their design, in particular, when determining the patterns of operation of ejection systems in paint booths. The purpose of this work is numerical simulation of air flows in a low-pressure ejector system for industrial ventilation systems, where the aspirated air contains flammable, explosive, and abrasive impurities. Results. For the given airflow rates, the values of velocities, and pressure losses in different sections of the ejector at different ejection coefficients ? are determined. The ? coefficient turned out to be slightly more than one, which indicates a very efficient operation of the ejector system. In the case of ? > 1, the purification of dirty air occurs by mixing a significant amount of clean air. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is in the possibility of using numerical modeling in the design of low-pressure ejector systems when the optimal operating mode of the fan is selected based on pressure loss.

Keywords:
industrial ventilation, ejector system, ejection coefficient, numerical study, pressure loss.
Kareeva Ju.R., Varsegova E.V., Ksenia B.A., Raushan Z.R.  Research of the geometrical parameters of air inlet hole influence on the characteristics of jetСтр.104
Resume:

Problem statement. While considering the air exchange scheme in the room with heat release the most effective is the air-jet supplying directly into the working area. To avoid inaccuracies in the design calculations, it is necessary to ensure the irregularity of the velocity profiles in the jets, which are formed from the outflows from the nozzles of different geometry and direction of the branch pipe. However, the outflows of jets from the nozzles located immediately behind the direct turn and oriented at different angles to the horizon, remain practically unexplored. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the influence of the distance from the direct turn of the air duct to the inlet on the characteristics of the forming jet. Outflow irregularity is investigated numerically using the Fluent software package. Results. As a result of the numerical solution, the flow streamlines were constructed for several geometries of a horizontally located nozzle, and the main characteristics of the jet at the outlet were determined: the profiles of the longitudinal and transverse components of the velocity, the change in static pressure, and the angle of the jet outflow. The research results are presented in dimensionless form. It was found that the formation of the velocity and pressure field in the jet is influenced by the relative position of the supply nozzle and the previous rotation. It was found that when the inlet is located in the immediate vicinity of the turn, the velocity profiles have a strong unevenness, and the jet flows out at an angle to the horizon. When moving away from the turn, the jet is leveled, the transverse velocity component does not affect the jet, and the outflow angle tends to horizontal. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that they can be used to calculate the air distribution and circulation of air masses in ventilated rooms.

Keywords:
numerical methods, flow characteristics, velocity profile, vortex zone, computational fluid dynamics.
ROADS, SUBWAYS, AIRPORTS, BRIDGES AND TUNNELS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Loginova O.A., Azarevich E.N.  Improving the organization of drainage on the street and road network of KazanСтр.112
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the most suitable bioengineering structures for the city’s road network, capable to accumulate and drain stormwater. As part of the study changes in liquid precipitation in the city of Kazan, domestic and foreign regulations governing the activities of bioengineering facilities were analyzed, and the most effective biological methods for regulating rainfall runoff were determined. Results. The main results of the study: the maximum daily precipitation of the city of Kazan for the entire period of their observations was considered, solutions for the rapid drainage of stormwater from the roadway were proposed, allowing accumulating and draining them. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the vertical planning of the city lies in the possibility of solving the stormwater drainage problems through the formation of new means of greening the city.

Keywords:
city street, rain garden, stormwater drainage.
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
Bakushev S.V.  Differential equations of equilibrium for continuous media calculating with the approximation of volumetric and shear deformation diagrams by biquadrates functions (centrally symmetric deformation)Стр.121
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to derive differential equilibrium equations for a geometrically and physically nonlinear continuous medium under conditions of centrally symmetric deformation when the diagrams of volumetric and shear deformation are approximated by quadratic functions. Two mathematical models are used that describe the mechanical behavior of a material of a continuous medium: a model that does not take into account geometric nonlinearity and a model considering geometric nonlinearity. Results. The formation of physical dependencies is based on the calculation of the secant moduli of volumetric and shear deformation. When approximating the graphs of the volumetric and shear deformation diagrams using two segments of parabolas, the secant shear modulus in the first segment represents a linear function of the intensity of shear deformations; the secant modulus of volumetric expansion-contraction represents a linear function of the first invariant of the strain tensor. In the second section of the diagrams of both volumetric and shear deformation, the secant shear modulus is a fractional (rational) function of the intensity of shear deformations; the secant modulus of volumetric expansion-contraction is a fractional (rational) function of the first invariant of the strain tensor. Proceeding from the assumption that, generally speaking, the volumetric and shear deformation diagrams are independent on each other, six main cases of physical dependences are considered, depending on the relative position of the breakpoints of the volumetric and shear deformation diagrams graphs, each approximated by two parabolas. Based on the obtained physical equations, we derived differential equations of equilibrium in displacements for a continuous medium under conditions of centrally symmetric deformation. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that the obtained differential equations in displacements will make it possible to obtain a solution to the problems of calculating continuous media with central symmetry considering both geometry and load, the mechanical behavior of which is described taking into account physical and geometric nonlinearity, when approximation of diagrams plots of volumetric and shear deformation by biquadratic functions take place.

Keywords:
continuous medium, centrally symmetric deformation, approximation of volumetric and shear deformation diagrams, quadratic functions, differential equations of equilibrium in displacements, geometric linearity, geometric nonlinearity.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
Grishina M.P., Khamidullina A.T.  Urban planning tasks for the development of modern rural settlements on the example of the village of Nizhny Uslon (Republic of Tatarstan, Russia)Стр.134
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to study the cause-and-effect relationships of urban planning processes occurring in a single rural settlement and their impact on the reduction of the resident population in Nizhny Uslon village. Results. The results of the study include formulated tasks for solving the problem of reducing the population of a rural settlement and developed proposals for their possible solution. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the urban development of rural settlements lies in the possibility of the practical application of the research results. Effective urban management is the basis for modern design and planning, familiarization, and development of urbanized territories.

Keywords:
ethnographic park, rural settlement, ecological park, alternative employment, places of employment, social infrastructure, urban planning potential.
Dembich A.A., Orlova N.G., Ulyanov D.A.  Development of historical and cultural identity of large industrial cities (on the example of Naberezhnye Chelny)Стр.144
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine, identify and preserve the historical and cultural identity of the industrial city for urban planning reconstruction of the urban and architectural spatial environment of the large industrial cities of 1970s-1980s on the example of the Mezhdurech’ye district of Naberezhnye Chelny city by highlighting the positive qualities of architecture and urban planning principles, which are characteristic for the period under review, and their preservation and use in new construction. Results. Key findings are the formation of a methodology for preserving and adequate development of the historical and cultural identity of large industrial cities on the example of Naberezhnye Chelny. Conclusions. The developed methodology is of great practical importance and can be taken into account in real urban planning practice aimed at regeneration, renovation, and reconstruction of existing territories during the industrialization period of the 1960-1970s.

Keywords:
historical and cultural identity, industrialization, micro-district planning structure, panel-housing construction, hybrid micro-district.
Ismagilova S.Kh., Zaletova Е.А., Arsenteva Y.P.  Methods of architectural and urban reconstruction of residential areas of 70-90s of XX century in the planning system of KazanСтр.153
Resume:

Problem statement. The study aims to improve the quality of the spatial environment of the widespread residential development areas of the Soviet period based on the implementation of a complex of structural, functional, and landscape reconstruction techniques used at various territorial levels of residential formations that developed in the period of 1970-1990s. Results. The main findings of the study are in identifying main techniques of architectural and urban reconstruction of residential areas of 1970s-90s years in the planning system of Kazan having a universal character for use in similar town-planning conditions and development of the functional and spatial reorganization model of the urban system – «residential area – micro-district». Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture and urban planning lies in the fact that the proposed methods of functional, spatial, and landscape reorganization of the environment of 70-90s period residential districts in the planning structure of Kazan allow us to determine new directions in the reconstruction of urban territories, as well as to identify approaches aimed at eliminating the signs of moral aging of the development under consideration and formation of comfortable living conditions for citizens.

Keywords:
residential area, micro-district, widespread residential development, reconstruction, transport infrastructure.
Latypova T.A.  Spaces of urban activity in KazanСтр.161
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research is to formulate the term space of urban activity. Analysis of selected territories in Kazan which, according to the author’s opinion, correspond to this concept. Results. The main results of the study are to identify the factors that distinguish the space of urban activity on the example of the city of Kazan. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture and urban planning science lies in the fact that the author’s definition and the identified factors of the spaces of urban activity facilitate the process of their implementation in the territories of new development.

Keywords:
urban space, urban activity, public space, analysis of urban spaces, functional processes.
Khakimova Т.S., Zakirova Y.A.  Concept of long-term spatial development of the Kazan agglomerationСтр.172
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to study the methods of long-term planning and forecasting of large cities, to develop a concept (strategy) for the long-term territorial development of Kazan and the Kazan agglomeration. Results. As a result of the study a project model for the territorial development of the Kazan agglomeration in the long term was substantiated and developed, core projects for the development of the territory were identified and a roadmap for their implementation was developed. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture and urban planning is that the developed model of territorial development of the Kazan agglomeration in the long term will allow coordinating urban development activities and management of municipalities within the agglomeration, as it is the basis for the development of the territorial planning scheme of the Kazan agglomeration.

Keywords:
Kazan, Kazan agglomeration, territorial planning, metropolitan region, satellite city.
HOUSES ARCHITECTURE. THE CREATIVE CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITIES
Blinova A.V., Akhtiamova R.Kh., Akhtyamov I.I.  Evolution of the crematorium as a facility of infernal architecture in Europe of XX-XXI centuriesСтр.183
Resume:

Problem statement. This article examines the crematoria of the XX-XXI centuries as a facility of infernal architecture. Authors analyze the development of a type of crematorium, initially performing an exclusively utilitarian function, into a personalized space of repose, grief and memory. The purpose of the work is to collect and analyze the European experience in the design of cremation structures, to identify modern trends in the architecture of crematoria, as well as to study the influence of architectural space on the emotional state of the bereaved. Results. During the research we identified functional and technological model, which can serve as a basis for the organization of future cremation facilities; we formulated the tendencies of the space-planning organization of facilities and the adjacent territory, taking into account the psychological factor. Conclusions. The significance of the research results for architecture and urban planning lies in the possibility of applying modern trends in the creation of sacred places in the city, a design that meets the social and psychological needs of a person, using modern technologies.

Keywords:
cremation, design tendencies, the architecture of crematoria, history of cremation, infernal architecture, perception of space, death space, farewell space, sacral space, ritual.
Kaloshina S.V., Sazonova S.A., Fomenko A.M.  Analysis of residential and public buildings availability for people with limited mobility in the city of PermСтр.194
Resume:

Problem statement. The main goal of the study is to analyze the problems of accessibility of objects for various purposes for people with limited mobility living in the city of Perm. To do this, one should consider numerous factors affecting the accessibility of buildings and structures, such as the slope of the ramp, the coating material, the presence of handrails and specialized sanitary facilities, as well as their correct arrangement in terms of ergonomics, etc. Results. The main findings of the study based on the analysis are the following: we identified the conformity and inconsistency of the buildings with regulatory requirements and highlighted positive trends taken during the implementation of the Accessible Environment program within the territory of Perm. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that they can help in the further development and modernization of solutions to the problem of accessibility of the urban environment for people with limited mobility. The results will also allow designers to pay attention to the urgency of the task and the basic violations in the design and construction of public and residential buildings in the area of accessibility for people with limited mobility.

Keywords:
people with limited mobility, people with disabilities, accessible environment.
Kaloshina S.V., Sazonova S.A., Poluyanova E.A.  Reconstruction tasks of preschool institutions in the city of PermСтр.204
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the work is to determine and specify the main architectural and planning tasks for the reconstruction of preschool institutions in Perm, built according to standard projects of the 1960s-1980s, based on the analysis and comparison of the requirements of previously existing regulatory documents with the requirements of the current regulatory framework. Results. Analysis of the regulatory framework and standard projects related to different time periods of the construction of preschool institutions made it possible to highlight the main factors that must be taken into account during their reconstruction. The article discusses in detail the identified inconsistencies in relation to the composition and area of the premises, their layout and planning solutions. It is shown how the requirements for ensuring accessibility for people with limited mobility, fire safety requirements, as well as solutions for the improvement of kindergarten territories have changed. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture lies in the fact that the performed studies contribute to the formation of a qualitatively new architectural space of preschool institutions built in the 1960s-1980s and in need of reconstruction. Improvement of space-planning solutions allows creating comfortable conditions for the stay of children and educators, makes kindergarten buildings functional and accessible for all categories of citizens, including people with limited mobility.

Keywords:
design of preschool institutions, reconstruction, people with limited mobility, landscaping.
 
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