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HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS AND LIGHTING
Kocharyantc K.V., Tislenko I.N.   Experimental studies of a non-isothermal air jetСтр.6
Resume:

The calculation of air distribution is one of the most important stages in the design of ventilation and air conditioning systems, the correctness of which largely determines the formation of a comfortable microclimate. Most subject matter experts carry out this calculation using engineering methods. At the same time, the use of methods by different authors leads to very different results. The purpose of the work: based on experimental studies, to determine the most correct method for calculating air distribution by non-isothermal jets supplied horizontally. Research objectives: analysis and comparison of calculation formulas of the most commonly used methods for calculating non-isothermal jets; conducting experimental studies of the supply jet in non-isothermal conditions at the stand of the scientific research laboratory of Aerodynamics and acoustics of the Arktos plant at various parameters at the outlet; comparing the speed, temperature and trajectory of the supply jets with the results of calculations using engineering methods; analysis the results obtained. Based on the conducted research, it was found that none of the generally accepted engineering methods allows correct determination of the parameters of a non-isothermal jet. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research and improve methods for calculating air distribution by non-isothermal jets.

Keywords:
ventilation, air distribution, supply jet, air heating, geometric characteristic, Archimedes criterion
Uvarov V.A., Kochev A.G., Sokolov M.M.   Numerical study of air convection flow in the Church of the Holy Blessed Prince Alexander Nevsky Стр.17
Resume:

Problem statement. Orthodox churches are an important part of the cultural life of our society, being a visual reflection of the traditions of our people, which is why it is so important to preserve them in their original condition. One of the key factors in preserving the interior decoration is the creation of optimal temperature and humidity parameters in the church, for a deeper understanding of which it is necessary to study the processes of development of speed and temperature fields that arise in the entire area of the Orthodox church. In this article, the goal was to study the processes of development of velocity and temperature fields arising in the entire area of the Orthodox church, within the framework of which the following tasks were solved: to study the selected model for grid convergence and to verify the results obtained during actual measurements. The article presents experimental data and theoretical results obtained as a result of numerical modeling of the flow caused by free convective heat exchange inside Orthodox churches. The results of the developed model are presented in the form of the “SAFHE” framework written according to the MVC scheme in the Python programming language. Results. The results of the calculation of the heating system with window sill aluminum radiators, carried out using the developed framework, are presented. Conclusions. The average absolute percentage error (MAPE) values obtained as a result of verification allow us to conclude that the presented method is quite accurate.

Keywords:
Orthodox churches, temperature conditions, microclimate, numerical modeling, heating systems
Stepanov I.O., Kraynov D.V.   Application of a digital twin for indoor microclimate monitoring Стр.26
Resume:

Problem statement. Information modeling technology is actively used at the design and construction stage, generating a large amount of information about the facility. At the operational stage, this information is almost not used, although operational services need it to make effective decisions, which is the reason for special attention to this topic. The purpose of the research is to develop a digital twin for monitoring the microclimate in the premises of the scientific and educational center “Systems”, located on the campus of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are formulated: to analyze the possibility of using digital twin technology at the stage of operation of a building for a selected facility, to develop a measuring tool and a method for transmitting data on temperature and humidity of internal air to the information model of the classroom. Results. Using the example of a classroom at the scientific and educational center “Systems”, a method for monitoring indoor microclimate parameters with data transfer to a digital information model of the building in real time has been developed. The novelty of the results lies in the improvement of the process of operating buildings in order to ensure a comfortable indoor microclimate. For the construction industry, there is an opportunity to optimize costs while ensuring a comfortable microclimate using a digital building information model.

Keywords:
Digital twin, building operation, information modeling technology, BIM, Internet of things, MQTT protocol
DESIGN AND CONSRUCTION OF ROADS, SUBWAYS, AERODROMES,BRIDGES AND TRANSPORT TUNNELS
Tlyavlina G. V., Makarov K,N., Tlyavlin R.M., Emelianova G.A.   Stability of the fastening elements of the slopes of transport structures under the hydrodynamic effects of sea waves Стр.37
Resume:

Problem statement. When designing transport structures located in the offshore coastal zone, the reliability of operation is ensured, among other things, by the effective operation of engineering protection structures against the effects of sea waves. In this work, the object of research is wave-damping slopes made of rough stone or shaped massifs located in the root parts of engineering protection structures (traverses, buns, etc.). The wave pattern of structures under the influence of waves approaching the slopes at angles in the 35–90-degree sector was studied. The work was performed using the method of physical (hydraulic) modeling. The purpose of the research is to adjust the methodology for calculating the stability of the fastening elements of slope wave damping structures, based on theoretical developments and experimental data (based on laboratory research data). The tasks are to perform physical modeling of wave effects on the fastening elements of wave-damping slopes at different angles of the approach of sea waves to structures; to propose formulas based on scientific research to supplement existing regulatory documents in the field of engineering protection of transport structures. Results. In this work, the conditions for the loss of stability of the fastening elements of the protective slopes are obtained, namely, the most unfavorable angles of wave approaches to structures. The obtained interference effects in the zone of wave effects on the fastening elements are substantiated. Calculation formulas are proposed for the most complete consideration of wave effects in the oblique approach of waves to structures. Conclusions. The conducted research aimed at developing and improving the regulatory framework in transport construction will improve the reliability and safety of roads and railways, as well as bridge crossings designed and operated on the sea coasts. It is recommended that the results obtained, based on scientific research, be reflected in the updated version of SP 277.13258.2016.

Keywords:
wave-damping slope, hydrodynamic effects, roads, wave interference, bridge crossing, transport structures, physical modeling, experiment
Bessonova V.Yu.   The influence of temperature control of asphalt concrete mixture and mechanical loads on the strength of asphalt concrete Стр.54
Resume:

Problem statement. One of the main objectives when creating an asphalt concrete road surface will always be its durability. For this purpose, it is proposed to use the process of preliminary thermostating of the asphalt concrete mixture. The purpose of the work is to study the positive effect of this process on stabilizing the strength of asphalt concrete and reducing the negative impact of mechanical destruction on it under the influence of load. The objectives of the study are to determine the activation energy of the destruction of bitumen and its adhesive bonds, as well as to determine the coefficients of their sensitivity to mechanical stresses. Results. A method for determining the durability criteria of asphalt concrete composites based on the thermofluctuation theory of strength by S.N. Zhurkov is described. Some ways to improve them have been proposed, including by modifying bitumen. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the road construction industry is that through the use of temperature control it is possible to obtain a more durable asphalt concrete pavement.

Keywords:
adhesion, cohesion, bitumen, strength, asphalt concrete, durability, temperature control
Maksimov V.A., Ushakov V.V.   Requirements for sealing expansion joints of cement concrete pavements of highwaysСтр.66
Resume:

Problem statement. High-quality and timely sealing of expansion joints of cement concrete pavements is an integral part in maintaining a high service life of highways. In connection with the extension of the types and quality of sealing materials, it is necessary to develop requirements for sealing expansion joints. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors on which the choice of sealing materials depends, which in turn affects the performance of expansion joints of cement concrete pavements. The objectives of the study are: analysis of the main sealing materials for expansion joints of cement concrete pavements, comparison of their main characteristics, as well as identification of factors that influence the service life of expansion joints of cement concrete pavements. Results. The main climatic and operational influences on expansion joints that affect the service life of cement concrete pavements are described. The main types and causes of destruction of sealing materials in expansion joints are considered. Recommendations are given regarding the correct purpose of sealing materials, taking into account the natural and climatic conditions of operation of cement concrete pavements. Conclusions. The results of the study make it possible to establish the advantages and disadvantages of various types of sealing materials and provide recommendations for their selection.

Keywords:
highways, cement concrete pavements, expansion joints, sealing materials, sealing
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Gulyakov E.G., Khozin V.G., Borovskikh I.V., Ganeeva Y.M.   The influence of superplasticizers on the grindability of Portland cement for the production of low water demand cements Стр.77
Resume:

Problem statement. The development of technology for producing high-strength concrete is one of the most relevant scientific areas of concrete science at present. The traditional solution to achieving high strength properties of concrete is to increase the activity of cement, which is achieved by increasing the grinding fineness. However, finely ground cements with high specific surface area have increased water demand, which leads to high consumption of water and plasticizers in the concrete composition. The use of low water demand cements makes it possible to combine high activity and low water demand of the binder. It is important to achieve a high specific surface area of cements with low water demand at the lowest energy consumption for grinding. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the grindability of additive-free Portland cement when producing low water demand cement from it in comparison with finely ground cement of equal grinding time. To do this, the following problems were solved: obtaining finely ground cement and cement of low water demand with different types of superplasticizers at the same grinding time of additive-free Portland cement, as well as determining the dependence of the specific surface area on the grinding time and the particle size distribution of the resulting ground binders. Results. The paper presents the results of studies of the influence of aqueous solutions of superplasticizers, in comparison with their dry powders, on the grindability of industrial Portland cement, and identifies the optimal indicators of surfactant concentration at a high specific surface area of low water demand cements. Conclusions. According to the results of the study, the most effective grinding intensifier of Portland cement is an aqueous solution of a superplasticizer based on polycarboxylate ethers, which allows, at a concentration of 0.5% by weight of cement, to achieve the maximum specific surface area among the studied compositions of low water demand cements.

Keywords:
cement, finely ground cements, low water demand cements, superplasticizers, grinding intensification, grindability
Abdrakhimov V.Z.   Influence of ash and slag mixture on technical parameters using regressive analysis and phase composition of ceramic bricks Стр.92
Resume:

Problem statement. In the Russian Federation, for the efficient operation of factories producing ceramic bricks, first-class raw materials have been noticeably decreased. They are advisable to be replaced with industrial waste having identical chemical compositions and technological parameters similar the natural traditional raw materials. Therefore, before using industrial wastes in the production of ceramic bricks, it is advisable to examine them for chemical, mineralogical and fractional compositions and technological properties. Enterprises in environmentally advanced countries have benefited from this use of industrial waste in construction materials as a tool for protecting ecosystems. The purpose of the work: to investigate the influence of the ash and slag mixture, received from the combustion of oil shale, on the technical parameters and phase composition of ceramic bricks. The investigation is carried out using regression analysis.

Keywords:
ash and slag mixture from combustion of oil shales, inter-shale clay, ceramic brick, technical parameters, regression analysis, phase composition
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
Kayumov R.A., Khayrullin L.R., Gilyazetdinov R.F.  On one variant of the energy method for solving the problem of beam stabilityСтр.105
Resume:

The problem of stability of a rod on an elastic base with various fastening conditions, including with various elastic supports, is relevant both in mechanical engineering and in construction. The purpose of this work is to develop a new method for solving the problem of rod stability, which allows improving the assessment of the critical load from above when using the energy method. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to present an energy formulation that differs from those available in the literature. At the same time, it must be shown that in some cases it allows to obtain a solution that gives a lower critical load value than other approaches. Further, it is necessary to verify the proposed approach using examples, which is demonstrated by the example of a pivotally supported beam of variable thickness. It is revealed that it gives a lower value of the critical load compared to that resulting from a solution using the Tymoshenko approach in calculating the work of the compressive force. This allows a more accurate assessment of the stability of rods and columns.

Keywords:
stability of the rod, energy approach, upper limit of the critical load, elastic supports, elastic base
Serazutdinov M.N.   Determination of movements of a beam with a crack using the theory of rods Стр.114
Resume:

Problem statement. Currently, the relevance of studying the problems associated with the occurrence of damage in beams in the form of cracks is due to the need to predict the consequences of their occurrence in operated structures. The calculation of complex rod structures, using only the relations of the theory of elasticity, is associated with significant difficulties. In such cases, a rational research method consists of a combination of relatively easy-to-implement calculation methods and elasticity theory. The purpose of the work is to identify the main patterns of changes in the deformed state in rod systems during the formation of various defects and damages in them. The objective of the study is to develop a mathematical model and a method for calculating beams during bending, which allows determining the movements that occur when a crack appears. Results. A mathematical model of beam deformation during bending is constructed, which allows determining the movements when a crack occurs. The peculiarity of this model is that the part of the rod containing the crack is replaced by a section in which the cross-sectional dimensions are smaller than the initial value. General patterns of deformation of beams with damage have been revealed. In particular, it is shown that for cracks with the same relative depth, the calculated height of the cross-section of the weakened section is approximately the same for different cases of loading and fastening of the beam. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in improving the methods of calculating rod structures when cracks occur in operated structures.

Keywords:
crack, beam bending, mathematical model, deformed state, bending patterns
BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Mirsayapov Ilshat T., Gainetdinov R.G., Salimzyanov I.R.  Connections of Reinforced Concrete Columns with FoundationsСтр.124
Resume:

Problem statement. The main problem in the production of precast reinforced concrete columns is the design of the supporting part, both from the point of view of simplifying manufacturing and ensuring the required bearing capacity. The purpose of the work is to develop a nodal connection of a precast reinforced concrete column with a monolithic foundation using an embedded part. The main tasks are consideration of existing nodal connections of precast reinforced concrete columns with monolithic foundations and comparison of the proposed connection using embedded parts in terms of the complexity of manufacturing and installation, bearing capacity, consumption of steel with existing technical solutions. Results. The paper presents the results of the development of a nodal connection of a precast reinforced concrete column with a monolithic foundation using an embedded part. As a result, it was revealed that the nodal connection with the use of embedded parts, proposed by specialists of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, is not inferior in bearing capacity to existing analogues, while simplifying and reducing the production time of columns, increasing the possibility of variable change under different operating conditions and perceived efforts. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that due to the use of embedded parts, the time and cost of manufacturing precast reinforced concrete columns are reduced without compromising bearing capacity and durability.

Keywords:
prefabricated column, embedded part, installation of columns, connection
Sharynin B.E.   Numerical modeling of some types of standard tests for joints of wooden structures on nail platesСтр.136
Resume:

Problem statement. Nail plates are widely used in construction as connecting elements for wooden structures. The design of the plates from the 1980s has undergone significant changes in terms of the configuration of the teeth and their dimensions. The test results according to the new standards are not published. Since the study of the nature of the work of joints and structures involves the use of data on the bearing capacity of nail plates, one of the ways to obtain information in this area is numerical modeling. The purpose of this study is to verify models of steel and wood materials as part of a finite element model of wooden structures connected by nail plates through comparing the results of numerical modeling with the results of field tests of metal toothed plates performed by manufacturers and third–party researchers, necessary for subsequent use in calculations of the bearing capacity of joints. As part of the study the following tasks were solved: developing computational models of connections, determining the calculated physical and mechanical characteristics for the model of wood as an orthotropic material and steel as a nonlinear elastic-plastic material, as well as comparing the results of numerical modeling with the results of available data on load-bearing capacity. Results. As a result of numerical modeling, a satisfactory level of correlation of the results with data on field tests of such joints was revealed. Conclusions. The models of materials of 08KP steel and pine wood formulated in the study can be recommended for use in calculations of the bearing capacity of the nail plates using the finite element method.

Keywords:
numerical modeling; finite element method; connections of wooden structures; nail plates; orthotropic wood model; standard tests; bilinear hardening
TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION
Ermoshin N.A., Borisov V.A.   Modeling of working conditions and selection of sets of road-building machines and processing equipment Стр.147
Resume:

Results. The proposed methodology makes it possible to justify the option of a set of road construction machines and technological equipment and to adjust it (adapt) to the changing conditions of work on the production, procurement and transportation of materials and structures, construction of the roadbed, foundation construction, and asphalt concrete pavement construction. The developed methodology also makes it possible to adapt a set of road-building machines and mechanisms not only to changes in the scope of work and technical support of the construction organization, but also to the financial capabilities of the contractor. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that by creating an adaptive set of road-building machines and technological equipment for the construction of highways, it is possible to reduce the costs for the formation, operation and possible adaptation of the set.

Keywords:
operating conditions, road construction machinery set, technological equipment, mathematical model, adaptation
URBAN PLANNING, RURAL PLANNING
Musabirov T. A., Zakirova Yu. A.   Prerequisites for the development of growth points of the Kazan agglomerationСтр.159
Resume:

Problem statement. The relevance of the study is due to the need to develop a sustainable model of spatial development of the Kazan agglomeration, identify ways to develop and strengthen the supporting framework of the agglomeration, determine the order of coordinated territorial planning activities. The purpose of the study is to identify promising areas of spatial development of the Kazan agglomeration, its growth points for the transition to a polycentric model of urban development. To achieve the goal, the following tasks were set: to study theoretical research in the field of agglomeration development; to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the Kazan agglomeration; to form a model for the transformation of the planning structure of the Kazan agglomeration, taking into account potential growth points, to identify measures for their development. Results. The main results of the study are that a model of transformation of the spatial development of the Kazan agglomeration is proposed, based on the identification of points of growth of agglomeration significance and their development, which will increase the standard of living of residents of the agglomeration. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for urban planning lies in the fact that the developed model can be used for coordinated, more effective spatial and territorial development of the agglomeration, to identify priority activities and territories that will have a general positive effect on the economy of the region in the future.

Keywords:
urban agglomeration, growth points, satellite settlements, polycentricity, urbanization, pendulum migration, Kazan agglomeration
Partny E.Y., Malkov I.G.   The model "Safe reintegration of territories – a new ideology" in the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radionuclides Стр.170
Resume:

Problem statement. The Republic of Belarus is taking long-term measures to rehabilitate the territories of Eastern Polesie after the Chernobyl accident. Local communities face issues of advanced development, which requires the development of a new knowledge system, the evolution of planning approaches and the maximum use of architectural methods in the implementation of rehabilitation. The purpose of the work is to develop a new architectural model based on two prerequisites for ensuring the safety of the population and the growth of its well-being. The objectives of the study are to identify the prerequisites for changing the worldview of both architects and other decision makers on the further development of the district and the development of new approaches in the design of areas subject to radioactive contamination. Results. A model of architectural and planning rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radionuclides has been developed, which describes the prerequisites for implementation, design approaches, and examples of connection with other existing models for consistency during the event. Conclusions. The new model of safe reintegration of the territory simplifies the implementation of social changes, the search for architectural solutions for territories with special environmental requirements.

Keywords:
Architectural and planning rehabilitation, Eastern Polesie, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant
Khafizov P. S., Zakirova Yu. A.   Features of the redevelopment of industrial and communal areas of the city of AlmetyevskСтр.180
Resume:

Problem statement. The relevance of the study is due to the need to develop a spatial development strategy in the field of redevelopment of industrial zones in Almetyevsk, while there are no federal and regional programs for the redevelopment or modernization of industrial territories. Irrational use of land resources is typical for many large cities, when significant urban areas are occupied by industrial facilities, which causes a number of economic and social problems: high levels of environmental pollution, transport infrastructure overloading, low level of public sector income from underutilization of urban land potential. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the redevelopment of communal, warehouse and industrial zones of the city of Almetyevsk, to develop urban planning recommendations for the reorganization of large fragments of urban areas. Research objectives are to conduct a comprehensive urban planning analysis of Almetyevsk, to determine the specifics and features of the reorganization of communal, warehouse and industrial zones of the city of Almetyevsk, to determine the directions of urban planning transformations of the southeastern industrial zone in Almetyevsk. Results. The main results of the study are that a comprehensive urban planning analysis of communal, warehouse and industrial zones of the city of Almetyevsk was carried out, their typology was revealed, the specifics and features of the reorganization of the south-eastern industrial zone in Almetyevsk were determined. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture and urban planning lies in the fact that urban planning approaches for the reorganization of communal, warehouse and industrial zones of the city of Almetyevsk were developed for the first time, their functional planning features were determined and their typology was developed.

Keywords:
redevelopment, reorganization, brownfield, industrial and communal areas, Almetyevsk
ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY
  From sports festival to urban heritage: Festivalny Boulevard in Kazan Стр.193
Resume:

Problem statement. The article is devoted to the analysis of the authors concept of Festivalny Boulevard in the city of Kazan as a site of urban sports heritage, created in preparation for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The project was developed not only with the event in mind, but also with the prospect of its long-term use. The project successfully adapted the navigation of the territory and the symbolism of the holiday to the changing needs of citizens after the event. The article also discusses the details of the implementation of the concept, including elements of orientation and planning of recreation areas, their landscaping, and the creation of conditions for the safe use of personal mobility equipment. The purpose of the article is to study the implemented project of the Festivalny Boulevard in Kazan, as an extensive set of measures to create comfortable environment within the framework of the sporting event and the prospects for its long-term use for the life of citizens. Research objectives: analysis of municipal, regional and federal programs in the field of comfortable environment; formation of principles of the concept of space; the possibility of using the event to update the citys infrastructure. Results. The authors found that comprehensive work with urban spaces began in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2015 in connection with the adoption of a program for the development of public spaces. The development concept of the boulevard is based on two main principles: consistency and dynamism. The study found that the boulevard is a viable space and plays an important role in the citys image for both locals and tourists. Conclusions. The scenario approach to the development of this public space made it possible to make the territory memorable, demanded and visited. The implemented project can be considered a positive example of the tangible urban heritage of a sports mega-event. The operation of this facility is sustainable in economic, environmental and social aspects.

Keywords:
infrastructure, tourism, urban planning, public spaces, sports event, 2018 FIFA World Cup, modern heritage
Seregin D. V., Prokofiev E.I.   Trends in development of the bionic approach in architecture Стр.205
Resume:

Problem statement. Nature has historically been a source of knowledge and inspiration for architects, allowing them to create new forms, approaches, constructive and engineering solutions. With the development of science, a direction called Bionics appears in the theoretical knowledge of architecture. Trends in the development of this area expand and change the understanding of architecture, which ultimately transforms the environment created by man. Analyzing the current issues of this approach, it is possible to form and systematize an architectural apparatus for solving a variety of architectural issues. The main outline and general idea of bionics is the harmonization of nature with architecture, allowing nature and architecture to be complementary elements. Also, an important part of the bionic approach is the innovation of utilitarian architecture solutions (constructive, functional, operational, etc.), which allows us to find more effective solutions. The purpose of the study is to analyze the historical development of the bionic approach in architecture, to understand the causal relationships of bionic principles and forms of modern buildings and other architectural structures. The objectives of the research are to highlight the key points in the works of architects that influenced the formation of the bionic approach; to highlight the main bionic principles; to develop a graphical scheme for the development of the bionic concept in architecture. The main results of the study consist in the revealed interrelation of the stages of development of the concept of bionics, understanding the logic of modern issues and challenges in this area. Conclusions. The results obtained suggest a structured model for the development of the approach from the historical background of the formation of the problem to the present.

Keywords:
bionics, biomimetics, biomorphism, organics, rationalism, tectonism, emergence
ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY, HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTUAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Saifullina L.Sh., Sirazeev N.R.   Soviet monumental sculpture in the urban space of the city of Kazan Стр.221
Resume:

Problem statement. The phenomenon of Soviet monumental sculpture is quite actively problematized in modern architectural and art historical discourse and is included in the sphere of scientific interests of many researchers. The article is devoted to a comprehensive review of the Soviet monumental sculpture of Kazan as an artistic and urban planning phenomenon. The object of the research is represented by the most significant monuments for the urban environment, characterized by highly artistic plasticity, involved in the organization of spaces and the formation of certain semantic fields. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on the sculptural component integrated into the current urban planning situation of the historical center. The aim of the article is to establish general universalizable patterns in the development of Soviet monumental sculpture in Kazan. Research objectives: it is necessary to characterize the specifics of the interaction of monuments with their architectural environment; to analyze the formal and plastic properties of works of sculpture; to consider the genre and thematic diversity of the Soviet monumental sculpture of Kazan. Results. The iconic objects of the Kazan monumental sculpture of the Soviet period are considered, general patterns in the development of this direction of architectural and artistic thought are highlighted, and some individual features of the monuments are also described. In addition, in each individual case, an ideological and semantic reconstruction was carried out following the urban concept of genius loci. In the framework of a retrospective study, an important aspect was the artistic process itself in its relation to the paradigm of socialist realism. Conclusions. Based on the conducted research, it seems possible to classify the Soviet monumental sculpture of Kazan according to three main parameters: the compositional and urban planning role, the nature of statuary plasticity, genre and thematic affiliation.

Keywords:
sculpture, monument, statuary, memorial complex, architectural environment, synthesis of architecture and sculpture, compositional dominant
Ghannam M. Ya., Prokofiev E.I.   Historical overview of the nature of team sports and their architectural structures in the countries of the Ancient World Стр.243
Resume:

Problem statement. As society developed, sports developed either. In medieval Europe, for example, jousting and other types of combat were popular among knights, and in Asia martial arts and various forms of gymnastics were practiced as a means of developing physical and mental discipline. In the modern era, sport has become a global phenomenon, with millions of people watching and taking part in various activities, from football and basketball to golf and hockey. As technology has evolved, sports have also taken on new forms, such as e-sports, which include computer games and virtual competitions. The purpose of the article is to review the game sports of the Ancient world based on the analysis of archaeological sites and preserved sports facilities. Research objectives: analysis of sports in Ancient Egypt, among the Phoenicians in particular; study of the features of the sports games of the Greek kings and warriors; review of the sports of the Romans. Results. The authors have established that the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians as a rule held their sports games in open squares in front of temples, as well as in the courtyards of royal palaces. The ancient Greeks began to build sports facilities in accordance with their direct purpose, while preferring outdoor sports grounds in the fresh air. The ancient Romans continue the tradition of holding outdoor games, large amphitheaters are being built for these purposes, but some types of sports games are held indoors in Roman baths.

Keywords:
Architecture, history, facilities, sports, ancient world
Aidarova G.N.   Syuyumbike Tower: Stylistic Features in the Context of Romanesque-Italian, Seljuk, Arab-Mamluk Influences and Bulgar-Tatar Traditions Стр.253
Resume:

Problem statement. The Syuyumbike Tower is an outstanding architectural monument of worldwide importance. The period of its construction is not reliably established. The purpose of the study is to identify the stylistic features of the Syuyumbike Tower to put forward a scientifically based hypothesis about the period of its construction. The objectives of the study include identification the architectural elements of the Syuyumbike Tower; identification of similar architectural elements in the buildings of the European and Eastern Muslim Middle Ages for comparative analysis, determination of the style and composition of the Syuyumbike Tower. Results. For the first time, the full-scale and comparative analysis of the Syuyumbike Tower on 23 architectural elements is introduced. In tabular form, 106 architectural buildings from the European (41) and Eastern Muslim (65) Middle Ages, with similar architectural elements, are presented. The scientific novelty of this study is represented by the methodology of stylistic analysis based on the systematic identification, classification and comparison of the architectural elements of the Syuyumbike Tower with the architectural elements of the European (XI-XVI) and Eastern Muslim Middle Ages (VIII-XVI). We found out that the architectural tectonics and proportional and compositional structure of the Syuyumbike Tower are based on the principles of similarity of triangles (triangulation), which are characteristic of European Gothic. Conclusions. A scientifically substantiated hypothesis is put forward that based on the style-forming characteristics, the Syuyumbike Tower could have been built according to the project of an outstanding architect in the period of the Kazan Khanate, in the range of the end of XV – the first half of XVI centuries as an object of civil architecture of religious and secular purposes. The stylistic features of the Syuyumbike Tower lie in the creative interpretation of Romanesque, Gothic, Arab-Muslim, Seljuk, Mamluk, Ottoman influences and the Golden Horde compositional and stylistic traditions, in the manifestation of the regional style characteristic of an independent architectural school.

Keywords:
architectural style, summary table of architectural elements, analogues of the European and Eastern Muslim Middle Ages, Golden Horde traditions
Persova S.G., Sirazeev N.R.   The bell tower of T. I. Petondi in the structure of the ensemble of the Kizichesky Vvedensky Monastery in Kazan Стр.269
Resume:

Problem statement. The bell tower of the Kizichesky Vvedensky Monastery is one of the lost vertical dominants of Kazan, which had a special compositional and urban significance, and were of great interest in planning and stylistic terms. This article is devoted to historical and urban planning research, the object of which is above-noted structure. The aim of this work is to formulate an argument in favor of the need to restore the Kizic Bell Tower. The main objectives of the research are to review historical information about the monastery in general and the bell tower in particular; to study the compositional and planning role of the structure, to analyze its stylistic design; as well as to present the results of landscape and visual analysis. Results. The article attempts to introduce a hypothesis about the potential urban development of the object into scientific circulation. The multifunctionality of the Kizic Bell Tower as a planning element is indicated and the late classical attributes of this structure are revealed. Conclusions. During the analysis, key points were identified that indicate the uniqueness of bell tower of the Kizichesky Vvedensky Monastery. The theses presented in this study can be used in further scientific and restoration justifications.

Keywords:
Kizichesky Vvedensky Monastery, architect Thomas Petondi, bell tower, late classicism, monastery complex, urban planning dominant, landscape and visual analysis
 
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