New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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Maintenance №:2 Year:2022


BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Ilizar T. Mirsayapov  Evaluation of the residual load-bearing capacity of operated reinforced concrete structures. Стр.6
Resume:

During the operation of buildings and structures made of reinforced concrete, defects and damages heat up in the structures over time. In order to correctly resolve the issue of the possibility of further safe operation or reconstruction of buildings and structures, it is necessary to be able to assess the technical condition of reinforced concrete structures based on the results of their examination, taking into account existing defects and damages. The aim of the study is to develop, based on theoretical studies, the equations of the objective strength of the concrete of the compressed zone and the longitudinal stretched reinforcement of the bent reinforced concrete element with defects and damages. The objectives of the work are: to establish a scheme for the formation of cracks in the operated bent reinforced concrete element; to develop an equation of the objective strength of the concrete of the compressed zone and the stretched reinforcement of the reinforced concrete bent element, taking into account the influence of existing defects; to develop a methodology for calculating the residual load-bearing capacity of the operated bent reinforced concrete element, taking into account the influence of existing defects. Results. A methodology has been developed for assessing the residual load-bearing capacity (resource) of operated reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the influence of various defects and damages accumulated during operation. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that they allow for a more accurate and reliable assessment of the residual load-bearing capacity of the operated reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the accumulated defects and damages during operation.

Keywords:
steel reinforcement, stress structure, crack, damage, plastic resource, specific energy, stress, creep of concrete, elastic work of reinforcement.
M.A. Salakhutdinov, R.A. Kayumov, D.N. Aripov, A.R. Khanekov  Numerical study of the bearing capacity of a composite I-shaped section beam of pultruded fiberglass profilesСтр.15
Resume:

The purpose of the study is to determine the bearing capacity of a beam of a composite I-shaped section of pultruded fiberglass profiles by computer modeling. A new structural concept for a composite I-shaped section beam made of pultruded fiberglass profiles is being developed. Computer modeling of a composite material pultruded fiberglass and developed structural concept for a composite I-shaped section beam made of pultruded fiberglass profiles are performed on a software package that implements the finite element method. The actual work and bearing capacity of a composite I-shaped section beam made of pultruded fiberglass profiles are investigated. The main objectives of the study are the development of a finite element model and the results of the analysis of the stress-strain state of the structure, taking into account the real physical and mechanical characteristics of the pultruded fiberglass profiles. The significance of the obtained results lies in the determination of the actual work and the ultimate bearing capacity of a composite I-shaped section beam made of the pultruded fiberglass profiles with a three-point bending of a beam with a composite I-shaped section made of the pultruded fiberglass profiles by computer modeling, for further field study and subsequent implementation of the composite I-shaped section beam in construction.

Keywords:
pultrusion, fiberglass profile, bearing capacity, composite section beam, beam bending, computer modeling.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, SUBWAYS, AERODROMES, BRIDGES AND TRANSPORT TUNNELS
I. Y. Maistrenko, T. A. Zinnurov, T. I. Maistrenko, D. I. Erokhin, V. S. Malygin   Studies of coercive force of steel structures of bridge structuresСтр.24
Resume:

The modern method of non-destructive testing based on the measurement of coercive force demonstrates the possibility of analyzing the stress-strain state for any steel structures, especially for the most critical bridge structures. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the statistical variability of the coercive force and the reliability of the transition between stresses and coercive force in the steel structures of bridge structures. The main results of the study are to obtain the statistical characteristics of the coercive force for steel grade St3sp5 with a thickness of 8 mm in the state of delivery, after machining the samples and in the process of loading the samples. The results obtained by the method of confidence intervals based on the hypothesis of the normal distribution of the random value of the coercive force are in good agreement with the results of similar studies of steel St3, namely, with the critical value of the coercive force of 6...7 A/cm (600...700 A/m). The studies and methodological techniques proposed by the authors demonstrated the process of improving the system for evaluating the characteristic critical values of the coercive force with a certain level of reliability according to a series of mechanical tests of proportional control samples. The method of analysis of the coercive force will make it possible to quickly evaluate the transition of steel from elastic to elastic-plastic and plastic deformation zones. The significance for the construction industry lies in ensuring the timely identification of those structural elements of bridge structures, the condition of which does not fully meet the requirements for safe operation. The study of the dynamics of the variability of the coercive force during the entire life cycle of the bridge structures will allow using the information obtained for optimal planning of repair activities.

Keywords:
coercive force, mechanical tests, statistical analysis, probability distribution function, reliability
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
R.A. Kayumov, F.R. Shakirzyanov, L.R. Gimranov , A.R.Gimazetdinov  Determination of the characteristics of a viscoelastic fiberglass model based on the results of bending square section pipesСтр.37
Resume:

Problem statement. The paper presents the results of experiments on three-point bending of tubular samples made of pultrusion composite, one of the simplest variants of the creep core during shear of this material is proposed, a method for identifying the characteristics of this core by solving direct and inverse problems of deformation of beams in the form of thin-walled pipes is developed. The shear characteristics of the proposed viscoelastic model obtained by this method are presented and the calculated and experimental results are compared. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for determining the shear characteristics of a viscoelastic model of fiberglass deformation based on the results of experiments on three–point bending of thin-walled pipes. To achieve it, it was necessary to perform the following tasks: experiments, choose a variant of the relations of the hereditary theory of elasticity, develop a method for solving the direct problem of bending beams taking into account transverse shear and, based on it, develop a method for solving the inverse problem to determine shear characteristics. Results. Experiments on three-point bending of square-section pipes have been carried out. A method is proposed for identifying the characteristics of the creep core during shear of composite materials reinforced unidirectionally, based on solving direct and inverse problems of deformation of thin-walled pipes made of the material under study. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results lies in the fact that the mechanical characteristics of the viscoelastic model for pultrusion fiberglass obtained by the proposed method of their identification make it possible to obtain a good agreement of the results of analytical calculations with experiments. Both the test procedure and the identification method are quite simple to use in practice. The resulting model of the hereditary theory of elasticity allows us to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic deformations on the stress-strain state of fiberglass elements.

Keywords:
fiberglass, viscoelastic model, bending, mechanical characteristics, identification.
ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES.CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY
T.M. Nureyev, A.O. Popov, D.T. Nureyeva  Methodology for creating the maternal residential section of a three-rayed space-planning structure Стр.45
Resume:

The purpose of this study is to create a methodology for the algorithm of geometric construction of the three–beam architecture of the mother residential section for polygonal closed residential development of small and medium-rise blocks. The relevance of the study lies in the need to implement the State Program "Providing affordable and comfortable housing for citizens of the Russian Federation", approved by Government Decree No. 1710 of December 30, 2017. The methodology is applicable in countries with conditions that copy the insolation standards of Russia, changed in 2001 and 2017. The algorithm is necessary for the subsequent development of a computer program for the design of a three-beam space-planning structure for a polygonal closed grid for both residential and other functional purposes. Results. At the first published stage of this study, a methodology for designing a variety of types of "daughter" residential sections designed from 27 kinetic methods was presented. One of the 27 methods was presented in the form of using an initial module designed to construct accurate boundary parameters of the mother residential section. But the method was not deciphered graphically. This article is the second stage of the study, revealing the methods of constructing and using the initial module in the design of the boundary parameters of the maternal residential section, which will allow the formation of residential quarters of four types of social comfort level. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in energy-efficient design, expressed in reducing the creation time of the maternal and many daughter residential sections. Based on the identified boundary parameters of the initial module and the normatively established four types of apartments, a graphical algorithm for constructing the maternal and daughter residential sections forming a three-rayed space-planning structure is determined.

Keywords:
three-rayed structure, polygonal mesh, maternal and daughter residential sections, kinetics, transposition, similarity, source module.
Mukhitov R.K., Gorgeeva A.E.   Neuroarchitecture: architecture that affects people`s feelingsСтр.59
Resume:

Problem statement. This article discusses one of the current trends – a sensory approach to architectural design, as a solution to the problems caused by globalization. Today, the urban environment negatively affects people, because of which people have the following problems: stress, depression, decreased immunity, etc. To reduce the negative impact of the urban environment on humans and its aforementioned consequences, new approaches to architectural design are required, with the help of which, the architect will be able to take into account the feelings of a person and stimulate him to various activities. Today, domestic theorists and practitioners of architecture strive for this approach intuitively, while abroad this topic is more relevant and scientifically substantiated in the works of J.Pallasmaa, C.Spence, A.Perez-Gomez and J.P.Eberhard. The influence of neuroscience on architecture recognized, as neuroscience gives us an understanding of how the human brain, body, and building interact. Using the data of neurobiology in the design, an intriguing direction for modern architects neuroarchitecture has appeared. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the role of neuroarchitecture as an architectural design tool in order to influence a person, his health, behavior, abilities and well-being. The objectives of this study are: to assess the impact of neuroscience on architecture; definition of the term neuroarchitecture; revealing the role of each feeling, as well as their complex for architectural practice. Results. In the course of this study, the influence of the discovery of neuroscience was determined - the human brain is plastic and able to change in response to the environment - to architecture. An architectural environment designed according to the principles of neuroscience is called neuroarchitecture. It has been established that neuroarchitecture is a new tool for architects that allows them to design high-quality spaces that can improve peoples lives, consciously and scientifically substantiated. Also in this study, both basic human senses and proprioception as a sixth sense are analyzed. It is important to note that a person always experiences a complex of feelings, therefore, a multi-sensory approach to architectural design has become especially relevant, taking into account the entire range of human feelings in the aggregate. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained lies in the theoretical and practical understanding of foreign experience in the formation of architecture with the help of neurobiology - neuroarchitecture. Knowledge of neuroarchitecture can improve the quality of architectural solutions, which reduces the negative impact of the urban environment on a person, also improves the efficiency of human activity, its well-being and high quality of life.

Keywords:
neurobiology, neuroarchitecture, architecture, sensory, senses, multisensory design
Ponomarev E. S., Andreeva K. A.   Terraced buildings as the main factor in creating a comfortable visual perception of the architectural environment during the development of complex terrainСтр.72
Resume:

Problem statement. Formulation of the problem. The purpose of the study is to identify a certain type of development that allows for effective development of areas with complex relief, to form an architectural environment with optimal visually perceived characteristics of a volumetric composition. For this, the study defines the criteria for assessing the visual characteristics of a comfortable architectural environment. Based on the analysis and identification of the positive properties of a suitable volumetric-spatial type of buildings, the typology of buildings for the development of complex relief is revealed. The problem of developing territories with difficult terrain is today manifested in the intensive urbanization of cities, aimed at flat relief. Results. The research results were: - typological range of visual characteristics of the architectural environment, creating comfortable staying, taking into account the peculiarities of visual perception in difficult terrain; - typology of development, applicable to the principles of integration interaction between architecture and landscape; - substantiation of terraced buildings as the main means of developing difficult-to-pass territories, as the most adaptable for creating a comfortable architectural environment. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in the effective use of the building typology in the development of complex reliefs. Development opportunities expand with widespread urbanization. We presented terrace buildings, corresponding to the tasks of forming the visual comfort of the architectural environment and recommended as the main type of building on areas with difficult terrain.

Keywords:
Visual perception of the architectural environment, difficult terrain, architectural landscape, comfortable urban environment, architectural terracing.
S.N. Smirnova  Features of the architectural solution of earth-building structures and the possibility of their constructive arrangement for the conditions of the Middle Volga regionСтр.82
Resume:

Problem statement. A brief history of the construction of earth-building structures from antiquity to the present time is considered, trends in architectural shaping are identified, and the influence of space-planning and structural solutions on the environmental friendliness and efficiency of such structures is determined. The possibilities of constructing such structures in the conditions of the Middle Volga region are analyzed. The aims of the work are to trace the history of construction of earth-building houses; to identify the area of distribution of earth-building architecture; to determine the characteristic features of the architectural solution of earth-building houses; to analyze the possibility of constructing low-rise residential buildings using earth-building technology in the climatic conditions of the Middle Volga region. Results. A brief history of the construction of earth-building structures from antiquity to the present time is considered, trends in architectural shaping are identified, and the influence of space-planning and structural solutions on the environmental friendliness and efficiency of such structures is determined. The possibilities of constructing such structures in the conditions of the Middle Volga region are analyzed. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in the justification of the possibility of designing and constructing buildings using the rammed earth technology in the conditions of the Middle Volga region and the development of a wall design using this technology.

Keywords:
environmental friendliness, earthen architecture, rammed earth, technology "stabilized insulated rammed earth wall".
ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY. HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
A.R. Minibaeva, M.Sh. Fazleev   Architectural-spatial and architectural-planning features of buildings and buildings in the city gardens of Kazan for the period of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries.Стр.93
Resume:

The relevance of the study lies in the fact that in the Republic of Tatarstan, in the city of Kazan, within the framework of regional and national projects special attention is paid to the scale of reconstruction and restoration of private gardens, and therefore there is a need to refer to their history in order to preserve the historical appearance of the city. The purpose of the study is to identify architectural-spatial and architectural-planning features of buildings and structures located on the territories of Kazan city gardens for the period of the second half of the XIX – early XX century. The objectives of the research include: the study of iconographic and archival materials related to the research topic; consideration of historical and modern research on this topic; the implementation of systematization based on the studied bibliographic, iconographic and archival materials, according to the main architectural features. As a result of the study, the main architectural-spatial and architectural-planning characteristics of buildings and structures located in the territories of the gardens of Kazan for the period of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries were identified. The systematization of the studied buildings and structures made it possible to establish and record that in the territories of the public city gardens of Kazan in the specified period, 1-2 storey, with symmetrical facades, multi-season buildings and temporary structures, of medium size - up to 50 sq. sazh., in equal numbers there were objects intended both for the public activities of visitors and for their service. It is concluded that the significance of the obtained results for science and practice is the ability to focus on the research done in the process of reconstruction and design of new landscaping facilities in the historical center of Kazan in order to preserve the historical appearance of the city. Also, the research materials can be used in the course of lectures on the history of architecture in construction and architectural educational institutions of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Volga region.

Keywords:
architecture of buildings and structures in the gardens, historical center of the city of Kazan, systematization of buildings and structures, architectural and planning features, architectural and spatial features
Marat Sh. Fazleev, Rashid N. Diiarov  Improvement the tourist architectural environment of the city of Chistopol in the Republic of Tatarstan on the example of the Tolkish mill using the digital tourism method Стр.104
Resume:

The problem of improving the tourist architectural environment of the town of Chistopol is that these important sites are gradually dilapidated and destroyed. To ensure their preservation, it is necessary to make them more attractive, draw the attention of tourists and town residents to them. The purpose of the study is to improve the tourist architectural environment of the town of Chistopol of the Republic of Tatarstan on the example of the Tolkish mill using the digital tourism method. The objectives of the research are: to provide architectural solutions to improve the tourist architectural environment of the Tolkish mill as part of the tourist environment of the town of Chistopol of the Republic of Tatarstan based on Russian and foreign experience in the field of tourism; to develop graphical visualization of the application of ideas about the use of the Tolkish mill. At the moment, a large number of sites of architectural and historical potential have been preserved in Chistopol, their importance for the development of the tourist architectural environment has increased significantly in recent years. Results. The results of the study are recommendations for improving the tourist architectural environment of the town of Chistopol of the Republic of Tatarstan on the example of the Tolkish mill using digital tourism technologies, as well as a graphical visualization of the application of the selected recommendations. Conclusions. The proposed recommendation can be used to improve the tourist architectural environment of the town of Chistopol in the Republic of Tatarstan on the example of the Tolkish mill. This method does not require large financial investments, popularizes cultural heritage, and has a positive emotional impact on the tourist. The significance of the results of the study lies in the fact that the method of digital tourism can be applied to other historical cities and settlements with architectural and historical potential. Improving the tourist architectural environment will help the development of historical cities and settlements and contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage sites.

Keywords:
improvement, tourist architectural environment, architectural and historical potential, historical towns, cities and settlements, digital tourism, digital technologies, cultural heritage, virtual reality, augmented reality.
 
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