New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY, HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aidarova-Volkova G.N.  Potential for complex detection, conservation and tourist use of Kazan’s architectural heritage in the context of sustainable development of the historical centerСтр.7
Resume:

Problem statement. The article is devoted to the problem of complex identification of the historical and architectural heritage of Kazan – a historical settlement with a thousand-year history. The undetected artifacts of medieval Kazan and the insufficient use of the heritage objects of other periods impoverish the tourist infrastructure and the integrity of the historical center appearance. Results. On the basis of modern domestic and foreign experience, the approaches for the integrated identification and integration of the architectural heritage preserved in varying degrees (underground remnants, ground artifacts, recreation of lost unique monuments, and modernization of the mass historical urban areas) in the urban space of the historical center of Kazan have been proposed. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture consists in identifying the potential for sustainable development of the historical center of Kazan through the complex integration of artifacts of the Bulgar-Tatar and Russian-Tatar Middle Ages, the reconstruction of lost architectural monuments, modernization of the mass historical buildings.

Keywords:
conservation and tourist use of the architectural heritage, identification and attribution of artifacts of the Bulgar-Tatar and Russian-Tatar Middle Ages, reconstruction of lost monuments, modernization of the mass historical urban areas.
Volostnov O.Y., Kinosyan N.S.  To a question of integration of architectural objects of the Soviet period into a tourist exposition of the central part of the city of KazanСтр.20
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this article is definition of a state and opportunities for work with tourist destinations which are based on architectural objects of the Soviet period in the central part of the city of Kazan. Results. The main results of a research consist in consideration of the classification of tourist spaces by the rendered functionality accepted in the international community: formation and the analysis of estimated tourist destinations which cornerstone to be architectural objects of the Soviet period in the central part of the city of Kazan; the offer of actions for optimization and adaptation of the offered tourist destinations be in contact input in the exposition capacity of Kazan of the above-stated objects. Conclusions. The importance of the received results for the construction industry consists in the analysis of objects of the Soviet architecture of the central part of Kazan in the context of creation on their base of a tourist destination; recommendations for providing a stable tourist destination in the revealed territories are developed.

Keywords:
tourist destinations, active city space, architectural objects of the Soviet period.
Gubaydullov R.Z.  Dating the Tower of Kanadey, located in the South Middle VolgaСтр.30
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the article is to determine the date of construction of the Tower of Kanadey, as well as its functions. In this paper the construction date and the original functions of the tower are discussed. The Tower of Kanadey is believed to be the oldest surviving building in Ulyanovsk Oblast, although its construction date and purpose remain unknown. Results. The main results of the study are to limit the lower temporal boundary of The Tower of Kanadey – about 1750, as well as to reduce the number of versions of the original functional purpose of this facility. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture consists in determining the stylistic-functional place of some religious and fortification objects and complexes built on the territory of the Simbirsk-Syzran Volga region in the second half of the XVII-XVIII centuries, which allows to trace the geographical boundaries, chronological stages and stylistic features of the local regional traditions. Architecture or its individual schools.

Keywords:
The Tower of Kanadey, Simbirsk-Syzran Volga region in the second half of the XVII-XVIII centuries, regional architecture.
Elyukhina V.A., Krasnobaev I.V.  On the question of relationship of architecture and building technologies (upn the materials of foreign publications)Стр.40
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study was to identify approaches to the study and presentation of the topic of building technologies and architecture in domestic and foreign publications. Fundamental knowledge in the field of architectural technology plays a crucial role in the formation and implementation of conceptual projects. Results. Analysis of foreign and domestic theoretical studies allowed them to conduct a comparative analysis, identify the history of the scientific substantiation of architectural technology and determine the profession of an architectural technologist, as well as its differences from the architect in different European countries. The examples of modern architecture show the influence of technology on the quality of architecture. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architectural design consists in the development of engineering creativity within the framework of architectural practice in Russia, saving the construction budget and reducing the number of construction accidents.

Keywords:
architectural technology, building construction technology, international experience.
Zakirova T.R., Asadullin E.Z.  Development of architecture of public buildings of Kazan during the period from the middle 1930 to the middle of 1950th yearsСтр.48
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the article is to show how the development of Kazan’s architecture took place from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s using the example of public buildings, as well as to reveal the socio-economic prerequisites for changing the creative direction in Soviet architecture and to show the reflection of this process in the architecture of the city. Results. The desire to reflect the achievements of socialism, as well as the limited plastic language of modern architecture, led to its transition in the mid-1930s to the development of historical heritage, in which two tendencies manifested themselves in the architecture of public buildings in Kazan. The first sought to combine the requirements of a convenient functional organization with the beauty of the compositional techniques of the classical heritage and resorted to styling in the classic spirit, the second used a direct appeal to the forms, techniques and means of previous eras. Both the first and the second tendencies led to the reincarnation of the artistic tasks of architecture into decoration divorced from the demands of the economy and the possibilities of new constructions, but were true in relation to the spiritual ideals of this period. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture of Kazan lies in the fact that the appeal of architects in the period under review to the architecture of the past again gave the right to exist to those progressive traditions and architectural tools that had been developed over the centuries and for a certain period were put aside. These are the ensemble of architectural solutions, the use of the synthesis of architecture with visual arts, the identification of plastic volumes, warmth, humanity of forms, etc. At the same time, it cannot be said that the architecture of Kazan of this period only repeated the forms and techniques of the architecture of previous epochs, it also introduced a new one: the enlarged scale of squares and streets, the new spatial organization of volumes and can serve as an example now, when architects again, after a period functionalism and standardization, to the plastic language of the architecture of previous eras.

Keywords:
public buildings, architectural development, creative orientation.
Ivanova E.Iu., Khabibulina A.G., Khabibulina A.M., Vasileva Y.V.  Arched spacer systems from masonry material in the monuments of Russian religious architectureСтр.56
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this work is to analyze and summarize the results of research in the study of ancient coatings of masonry structure, namely the identification and classification of possible deformations and causes of these deformations in the spatial spacer systems of religious monuments of architecture, including in the administrative regions of the Republic of Tatarstan. Results. Studies have allowed to establish under the influence of some factors is the deformability of a system. First of all, it is its design features, then, the properties of building materials from which the masonry is made, as well as the magnitude and nature of the load. The influence of deformability of supports on the working and inert parts of the arches and the role of enclosing walls, arches and air connections is determined. Conclusions. The paper studies the deformation of all major types of coatings that occurred during their centuries-old operation, identifies the causes of their occurrence and presents the main ways to reduce the deformability of spacer systems. The most characteristic causes of deformations of the main types of systems are systematized, the places, directions and external signs of changes are determined, which is of great practical importance in the assessment of the technical condition, which is made before the restoration works. The presented results are relevant and have practical significance, as they allow experts to fully and accurately assess the state of the structures, to exclude erroneous conclusions, often occurring due to the lack of external manifestations of hidden defects and, thus, to avoid sudden collapses and accidents.

Keywords:
vault, structural system, arch, analysis, strengthening, sustainability.
Minibaeva A.M., Denisenko E.V.  Background and trends in the development of architecture of homes for the elderly in domestic and foreign design experienceСтр.64
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Problem statement. With age, older people begin to experience certain changes, it is necessary to take them into account when designing a safe living environment for older people. One of the popular types of housing for this category of people today is a nursing home. The purpose of the article is a study of the prerequisites for the emergence of a nursing home, its history and development trends, based on an analysis of international experience. Result. The main results of the study consist in a comprehensive assessment of architectural solutions of domestic and foreign experience for compliance with the modern requirements of homes for the elderly. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture consists in a brief analysis of the typologies of domestic and foreign architecture, which makes it possible to determine the development potential of modern home construction for the elderly.

Keywords:
architecture for the elderly, typologies of nursing homes, trends in the development of nursing homes, global experience of nursing homes.
Mustakimov V.R., Mustakimov A.V., Mustakimova V.V., Aminov A.R.  Renovation of the city structure of Kazan with the shifting of buildingsСтр.73
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study is to identify the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive renovation with moving existing buildings, within individual sections of an outdated urban planning and transport and pedestrian structure against the background of intensive infrastructure development and an increase in the density of transport and pedestrian flows in the city of Kazan. Results. The main results of the study are that comprehensive renovation with horizontal movement of buildings or structures will significantly improve the capacity of the roadway section on Leningradskaya Street between Pobezhimov Street (in the south) and Belomorskaya Street (in the north), and as a result, improve transport and pedestrian traffic network of the city as a whole. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the urban planning and architectural and construction sphere, as a result of a comprehensive renovation of the Leningradskaya street section, with the shifting of five existing buildings consists of: a significant expansion of the roadway from 2-sided single-row traffic to 4-way two-way traffic of urban vehicles; in preserving the historical and architectural image of the movable buildings erected in 1935-1955; in preserving and increasing comfort during their further operation in a new place after shifting.

Keywords:
renovation, wall frame, building movement, building rotation, winch, jack, steam locomotive hauling, rolling supports, wall frame, foundation.
Tsitman T.O., Proshunina K.A., Kudryavtseva S.P.  Reorganization of the system of pedestrian spaces in the town-planning solutions of the central historical part of AstrakhanСтр.88
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to identify the possibilities of reorganizing the historical part of the city of Astrakhan with the creation of pedestrian spaces. Cultural transformations lead to the creation of an enabling environment for urban space and systems for a safe stay in the city. Results. The main results of the research consist in the development of proposals for the organization of a single pedestrian structure of the historical part of Astrakhan. A single pedestrian structure will form a complete network of pedestrian streets and will allow to solve actual problems. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in concrete proposals for the development of pedestrian spaces using the existing streets and the reconstruction of the existing buildings of the historical part of Astrakhan. Proposals may be used as a basis for developing projects and their further implementation. Creating a system of pedestrian spaces in the town-planning decisions of the historical center will allow to create a safe and favorable environment and will contribute to improving the quality of life of citizens and guests of the city.

Keywords:
pedestrian spaces, comfortable urban environment, historical part of the city, street network, reconstruction of historic buildings.
HOUSES ARCHITECTURE. THE CREATIVE CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITIES
Moskalenko T.A., Korotkova S.G.  Methods of forming a correctional and developing environment for children with mental retardationСтр.98
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Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to formulate the main methods of designing correctional and developmental complexes for children with mental retardation, based on the analysis of foreign and domestic facilities of various correctional institutions. Results. The main results of the research consist in the development of techniques for the formation of architectural spaces that favorably affect a child with mental retardation, as well as a study of the prerequisites for their creation. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture consists in identifying the principles of the architectural and spatial organization of correctional and developmental complexes for children with mental retardation. The authors proved that the correctional-developing spatial environment has a direct impact on the upbringing, development and compensation of psycho-physiological disorders of disabled children.

Keywords:
mental retardation, influence of architecture, favorable environment, architectural techniques, correctional environment, mental retardation, architectural space.
Iusupova E.E., Aglyamova Z.M., Korotkova S.G.  Creating conceptual model of a multifunctional residential building based on sustainable design methodsСтр.108
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to analyze the design techniques of residential buildings in accordance with the three factors of sustainable architecture: the factor of conservation of natural resources, the factor of the life cycle of materials in construction, the factor of humane design. On their basis, propose a model of a residential multifunctional building. Results. The main results of the research consist in the development of a conceptual model of a residential multifunctional building, built on the basis of sustainable design techniques. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture consists in developing, taking into account the techniques of sustainable design, a conceptual model of the building, which can later be used as a basis for creating a full-fledged project for a residential multifunctional building.

Keywords:
factors of sustainable development of architecture, the preservation of natural resources, the life cycle of materials in construction, humane design, a conceptual model of a multifunctional residential building.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
Akhmetshina L.A., Aidarova G.N.  Features of formation of the architectural environment of pedestrian streets of peripheral («sleeping») areas on the example of KazanСтр.117
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Problem statement. The aim of the article is to consider the experience of transforming urban pedestrian streets, to identify formation problems and street types of peripheral («sleeping») areas as public spaces and to suggest methods for their transformation. Results. The main results are to apply methods of transformation of street space to peripheral streets («sleeping» districts) of Kazan in order to create comfortable conditions for pedestrians, moderate use of cars, priority of public transport and walking-cycling. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the architecture consists in the proposed classification of streets of residential areas of Kazan, in the formation of methods of transformation of street space on the example of Y. Fuchik street, as a universal approach to the reorganization of the streets of peripheral («sleeping») areas, taking into account their sustainable development.

Keywords:
pedestrian street, «sleeping» area, peripheral areas, pedestrian space, comfortable environment.
Zakieva L.F., Dembich A.A.  Special aspects of the distribution of healthcare facilities in large metropolitan areasСтр.127
Resume:

Problem statement. The preservation of the nation’s health is a priority area of the public policy. Nowadays, this area undergoes global challenges. They are population ageing, rise in mortality caused by dangerous diseases, decline in efficiency and availability of healthcare services. The current situation points out the necessity of making global changes, including changes in the area of urban planning. The goal of this paper is to develop a typological model of the spatial distribution of healthcare facilities in large metropolitan areas. Results. The analysis of government programs and the development strategies of the healthcare system let us define the present-day trends in our area of research. As a result of the analysis of the home and foreign practices of operation of healthcare facilities, a typological model of the spatial distribution of healthcare facilities in large metropolitan areas was developed. Conclusion. In order to increase the efficiency of operation of healthcare facilities, it is necessary to implement the discrete-network model of the distribution of healthcare facilities.

Keywords:
health care system, medical institutions, typological model, agglomeration, efficiency, medical cluster.
Latypov V.F., Sayfutdinova A.M.  Designing of residential buildings taking into account the requirements of natural air exchange of the premises on the example of Petropavlovsk-KamchatskyСтр.134
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the article is to determine optimal orientation of buildings for the design of housing estate, taking into account the requirements of natural air exchange of premises in a climate of the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Results. The main results of the research consist in determining the optimal orientation of sectional residential buildings, taking into account the climate of the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, in order to capture the wind pressure and, consequently, improve the quality of the natural air exchange in residential premises. The influence of planning decisions of housing estate on the natural air exchange of premises in a specified climate. Conclusions. The significance of the research results for urban design and architecture consists in the obtaining data about optimal orientation of sectional residential buildings for designing buildings with regard to the prevailing winds in the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky for maximum trapping of wind pressure. The obtained data will most fully take into account all driving forces of natural air exchange to improve the quality of indoor air in residential premises.

Keywords:
urban climatology, wind direction, wind pressure, housing estate, building orientation, natural air exchange of premises.
BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Lukashenko V.I., Dunaev D.V., Bikmurzina (Sherban) A.V.  Investigation of the convergence of determining the resource elements of the structure in terms of modeling the values of random parameters of the reserve strengthСтр.141
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of environment simulation values of random parameters calculation results strength reserve resource as individual elements of core facilities and the whole structure repeated lowcycle static loadings. You intend to define the resource at the design stage of a construction as the number of repetitive cases before exhausting the reserve strength in two-way tolerant assessment of its value. Given the random characteristics of the influences on the one hand and the bearing capacity of the elements on the other hand, as well as the availability of interval only the values of the parameters characterizing ultimately define the random variable reserve strength, reliability of the results can depend largely on modeling not only distribution of efforts in the elements. Results. The main results are that the study reserve strength as a random value by building his nomogramm with different input data for modeling of stationary stochastic process allows you to analyze and make reliable conclusions on the convergence results in resource definition depending on the properties of both the model and its simulation. As to the preliminary calculation of the minimum element and resource structures as a whole was adopted by the condition zero exhaust the reserve strength of at least one element of the structure. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that at the initial stage of design study changes reserve strength elements allows you to define and regulate the minimum design resource with a specified reliability not appearing in at least one failure element designs with repeated static loads.

Keywords:
core construction, simulation, calculation schemes, random variables, the minimum resource reserve of durability, reliability.
Mirsayapov I.T., Akhmetzyanov D.R.  Evaluation of the effectiveness of high-strength concrete in truss structures of one-story industrial buildingsСтр.150
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Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify and evaluate the economic feasibility of the use of high-strength concrete in the truss structures of one-story industrial buildings. There is considered one temperature block of the building for the assessment of the economic effect. Results. The main results of the research consist in confirming the hypothesis about the possibility of reducing the total cost in the trusses from high-strength concrete. There was calculation and design of truss structures of various spans, with different steps of transverse frames. The highest economic efficiency was achieved with constructions, with a span of 24 m, with a column spacing of 6 m. The construction of trusses made of concrete of class B100 made it possible to obtain a reduction in the consumption of materials, as a result of which the savings amounted to about 703670,00 rubles on one temperature block of an industrial building or 34,5 %, as compared with structures made of concrete of class B30. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to confirm the effectiveness of the use of high-strength concrete in the truss structures of single-story industrial buildings. The use of concrete class B100 in trusses gave opportunity to reduce the total cost of structures, consumption of reinforcement and concrete.

Keywords:
high-strength concrete, truss construction, one-story industrial building, truss, the class of concrete B100.
Mirsayapov I.T., Nikitin G.P., Khanbekov M.F.  Theoretical investigations of the stress-strain state of flat reinforced concrete floors punching in places of interface with columnsСтр.159
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to study the theoretical data of the previously proposed structural solutions of the junction of the overlap with the column, the development of methods for calculating the flat concrete floors for punching using models of operation and destruction of concrete and reinforced concrete. Results. The main results of the study consist in the analysis of scientific papers on the topic of the joint of reinforced concrete slab with a column, comparison of methods for calculating the slabs for punching in places mates with columns for Russian, Belarusian, European standards. Different approaches to the calculation give different results, which differ significantly. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the results of theoretical studies are applicable to create a technique that allows to perform calculations on the extrusion of flat concrete floors in the places of conjugation with columns using a frame-rod model. Flat floors contribute to the maximum use of space-planning solutions, including the height of the floor, facilitate wiring under the overlap of utilities.

Keywords:
frame-and-rod model, the calculation of the ceiling for punching, horizontal joint, local compression, the hypothesis of the wedge failure due to overcome the resistance of the concrete detachment, shear, and crushing.
FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Mirsayapov I.T., Koroleva I.V.  Studies of the water migration effect on changes in the clay soil physicomechanical characteristics under triaxial loading conditionsСтр.168
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study of clay soil of a damaged structure is to identify the features of water migration within the sample at various stages of regime loading. Existing data on experimental studies in this direction are scattered. Results. The main results of the studies performed are new data on the change in humidity in the characteristic areas of the sample during the regime of triaxial loading, as well as the effect of the established change on the mechanical characteristics of the soil. The analysis of the research results is carried out and some regularities are established. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in determining the effect of water migration within the sample on the change in the strength parameters of clayey soil under three-axis compression conditions, which makes it possible to reliably model the behavior of the soil in the base of the foundation.

Keywords:
clay soil, soil moisture, triaxial compression, angle of internal friction, specific adhesion, water migration.
Mirsayapov I.T., Shakirov M.I., Sabirzyanov D.D.  Field researches of the combined plate-pile foundation under cyclic loadingСтр.175
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the field tests is to study the effect from multiple repetitive cyclic loads on the bearing capacity and the settlement development of the plate-pile foundation. Experimental studies of this type foundations were mainly carried out under short-term and stepped static loads. Results. As a result of the research, data were obtained on the stress-strain state of the soil mass in the between pile area and under the lower end of the piles, as well as information on the change in the forces in the piles under cyclic loading. Conclusions. The obtained results significance for the construction industry is that determining the effect of cyclic loading on the behavior of plate-pile foundations elements in the future opens up the possibility for creating a method for calculating the settlement and bearing capacity that takes into account the influence of cyclic load on plate-pile foundations.

Keywords:
plate-pile foundation, cyclic loads, weak soil, field researches, groundbase settlement, deformations, efforts, between pile area.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
Broyda V.A., Romanov V.S.  Design characteristics of direct action airflow stabilizer with nonlinear stiffness of elastic element, included in the natural exhaust systemСтр.182
Resume:

Problem statement. Natural exhaust systems are widely used in various types of buildings. With decreasing temperature, natural exhaust flow rate increases more than the predicted, which is accompanied by an increase spending of heat for heating the outside air. Stabilization of airflow and the elimination of useless spending of heat in the cold period of the year is an actual problem. The aim of the study is to determine the design characteristics of a stabilizing device proposed in the author’s patent, with an elastic element having the necessary nonlinear stiffness, made of spring steel, included in a natural exhaust ventilation system. Results. The main results of the research consist in analytically obtained characteristics of a direct- action airflow stabilizer with an elastic element having a given nonlinear stiffness characteristic. The adopted parameters of the elastic element of the device provide sufficient stabilization of airflow with a small initial pressure loss. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that such a device is able to stabilize the airflow of natural exhaust in a wide range of outdoor temperatures, applicable to most floors of multi-storey buildings. The use of such flow stabilizers in natural exhaust systems saves thermal energy in the cold period of the year and contributes to a better microclimate in the premises.

Keywords:
stabilizer, airflow, elastic element, stiffness, natural exhaust.
Martynov P.O., Gorskaya T.Iu., Zolotonosov Ia.D.  Determination of the equivalent diameter of the pipe and intertubular space in the apparatus with a screw heat exchanger made of wire in the form of an ovoidСтр.190
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of this work is to calculate the equivalent diameter of the tube and tube space in the heat exchanger, the heat exchange element of which is made by winding followed by laser welding of the wire, the cross section of which has the form of an ovoid. Authors earlier offered three variants of effective devices on the basis of the considered heat exchange elements. Heat exchangers with working channels of cylindrical, conical and spherical shapes. This work is a continuation of the authors research on the creation of compact heat exchangers, large unit capacity. Results. The main result of the study is that the authors were able to calculate the equivalent diameter of the pipe made in the form of a twisted spring channel, the axial section of which is of complex geometric shape. Using elements of differential geometry, the authors were able to analytically present the expression needed to determine the diameter. For this purpose, the equations for determining the surface area of heat exchange and the volume of the pipe space are obtained explicitly. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that heat exchangers, developed by the authors, allow to significantly intensify the process of heat exchange in comparison with existing analogues, which is relevant for heating systems, hot water supply in the creation of housing complexes that meet modern requirements for saving energy and thermal resources.

Keywords:
equivalent diameter, hydromechanics, heat exchange, spring-twisted channel, ovoid.
Usikov S.M., Dyutin V.V.  Assessment of the need for installation automatic differential pressure regulators on double-pipe risers of a water heating system in terms of noise generationСтр.197
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research is to identify the criteria for assessment of the need for installation the automatic differential pressure regulators at stacks of two-pipe hot-water heating systems and to determine the method of technical evaluation. Results. The main results of the research are to obtain the method of technical evaluation for the installation of automatic differential pressure regulators in heating systems, taking into account the process of noise emissions in thermostatic valves of heaters. Conclusions. The obtained results are of value to the construction industry because of the practical utility of the method for technical evaluation of the given regulators installation. It is determined, that the installation of additional automatic differential pressure regulators is necessary, when the designed pressure losses in the heating system, including losses on the district heating substation exceed 20-22 kPa.

Keywords:
heating, automatic differential pressure regulators, hydraulic operation mode, thermostatic radiator valves, noise in variable valves, cavitation.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, WATER CONSERVATION CONSTRUCTION
Busarev A.V., Abitov R.N., Selyugin A.S., Bakhmetova L.A.  The study of the processes of sewage treatment from ions heavy metalСтр.204
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research is to determine the hydraulic size of the suspension formed in chromium-containing effluents, which were previously treated in a galvanocoagulator. This is necessary in the design of facilities for the removal of heavy metal hydroxides by sedimentation. Results. The main research results consist in determining the hydraulic size of the suspension consisting of chromium hydroxide (III) and iron hydroxide (III). Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is the possibility of using the results of these studies in the design of facilities for the treatment of chromium-containing effluents by sedimentation.

Keywords:
chromium-containing waste water, sedimentation, settling of hydroxides of heavy metals, research methodology, processing of results.
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Ginchitskaya Y.N., Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Polyanskikh I.S., Gordina A.F.  Structural ceramics modified with technogenic isostatic graphiteСтр.211
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Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of aqueous dispersions of technogenic isostatic graphite on the structure and properties of building ceramics. Results. The main results of the research are to confirm the change in the structure of the ceramic matrix and increase its strength as a result of the introduction of ultra- and nano-dispersed graphite. Ceramics with graphite particles dispersed in an aqueous medium and stabilized with C-3 superplasticizer in an amount of 0,005 % by weight of loam have the maximum strength characteristics. After drying, the compressive strength of the modified samples increases by 40 % compared with the control sample, after firing at 950 ° C – by 50%. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to establish the optimal concentrations of graphite in structural ceramics to increase its strength characteristics, as well as to identify effective types of stabilizers of graphite dispersions.

Keywords:
structural ceramics, low-melting clay, montmorillonite-hydrologist clay, technogenic isostatic graphite.
Qais H.A., Morozova N.N., Murtazin N.F.  The study of the phase-mineral composition of zeolite rocks by the method of X-ray phase analysisСтр.219
Resume:

Problem statement. Natural zeolite rocks are polymineral material. The mineralogical composition of samples of zeolite rocks of the Egyptian and Yemen fields was studied by X-ray phase analysis to reveal the dependence of their re-technological properties and the effect of zeolite phase and mineral structure on cement systems. The data were obtained on a Bruker D8 ADVANCE brand diffractometer using monochromatic CuK?-radiation in the mode of step scanning in geometry «on reflection». Results. In the course of the experiment, diffraction patterns of the studied materials were obtained, representing diffraction patterns in the coordinates of the intensity of the scattered beam from the scattering angle. The results of the relationship between the phase composition of zeolitic rocks and their water requirements and pozzolanic activity in the composition of hydraulic binders are compared. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that knowing the material composition of zeolite rocks can be adjusted technological and technical indicators of concrete with their use. This fact is confirmed by the experiments. Thus, an equal amount of zeolite in the studied rocks (64 %) changes their re-technological properties, which, as we believe, depend on the type and amount of accompanying minerals. The presence of cristobalite in the Yemeni rock leads to an increase in its water demand (up to 53 %) compared to the zeolite rock from Egypt, as well as to an increase in its pozzolan activity (up to 41 %). The presence of silicate impurities (Muscovite and quartz) in the Deposit of zeolite rock from Egypt leads to a decrease in its water requirement.

Keywords:
X-ray phase analysis, mineral, zeolite, cristobalite, water requirement, pozzolanic activity.
Stroganov V.F., Sagadeev E.V., Ibragimov R.A., Pimenov S.I., Potapova L.I., Stoyanov O.V.   Investigation of the effect of mechanical activation on the biostability of cement-sand mortarsСтр.229
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the investigation is to study the effect on the biostability of cement-sand solutions for the mechanical activation of mineral binder and the introduction of a superplasticizer. Results. The main results of the study consist in conducting kinetic studies to determine the biostability of modified cement-sand mortars obtained with mechanical activation of portland cement. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that, as a result of joint kinetic and IR-spectral studies, we can conclude that the introduction of a superplasticizer and the mechanical activation of the mineral binder increase the biological stability of cement-sand mortars.

Keywords:
mechanical activation, cement-sand mortar, citric acid.
Suleimanov A.M., Tuisina E.B., Bikmahametov R.R.  Modeling of polymer composite materials in the stress-strain state under the influence of aggressive media. Part 1. Development of methods and test benchСтр.239
Resume:

Problem statement. The combined effect of operational factors on polymer composite materials (PCM) in the stress-strain state significantly accelerates their rate of aging and destruction. The aim of the study is to develop a method for modeling the work of polymer composite materials in the stress-strain state under the influence of aggressive media. Results. The technique is developed and the installation for simulation of aging and destruction of polymer composite reinforcement for cement concrete reinforcement is modernized. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is the development of the methodology for predicting the durability of polymer composite materials in the specified operating conditions.

Keywords:
polymer composite reinforcement, simulation of aging and destruction, methods and installation.
Taimarov M.A., Lavirko Y.V.  Development of new types of aluminosilicate refractors with improved radiative abilityСтр.247
Resume:

Problem statement. In the production of building ceramic materials by firing method, fireclay refractories are used for lining the internal space of furnaces. The heat exchange in the furnaces of the kilns takes place due to the emission of lining on the material being calcined. Bricking is heated by the input heat from the flare of burning fuel natural gas. The warming up of the lining is used due to electric heating elements. But such heating costs much more. To increase the efficiency of the fuel gas used, it is necessary that the integral emissivity of the lining material be as high as possible. Results. The emissivity of fireclay is not high and depends on the formulation of the refractory. In addition, fireclay has a relatively low temperature range of application. High emissivity refractory materials – chromo-magnesite refractories are very expensive. This article presents the results of the development of new refractory formulations, which are compiled on a technological basis using the properties of the phases of mullite and cristobalite. It has been revealed that at certain ratios of the phases of mullite, cristobalite and the addition of a carbon-containing substance to the formulation of aluminosilicate acidic and semi-acid refractories, enhanced emissivity and temperature resistance are provided. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that at certain ratios of the phases of mullite and cristobalite, and the addition of a carbonaceous substance to the formulation of aluminosilicate acidic and semi-acid refractories, provides increased emissivity and temperature resistance. Shungite of Zazhoginsk Deposit of the Republic of Karelia was used as an additional carbon-containing substance to obtain a refractory with a guaranteed value of high emissivity. To increase the emissivity mullitecorundum basic refractory most effective use of chromite mined pit method in Burakovsk-Aganozersk (Republic of Karelia), Imandro-Varguzsky (Murmansk region), Ray-Izsc, Syumkeusk and Voykar-Synyinsky (Yamalo-Nenetsk Autonomous area) fields.

Keywords:
refractory, aluminosilicate, fireclay, cristobalite, mullite, corundum, carbon, phase, temperature resistance, emissivity, silicon carbide, chromite.
Tuisina E.B., Suleimanov A.M.  Simulation of polymer composite materials in the stress-strain state under the influence of aggressive media. Part 2. Method for predicting the durability of fiber reinforced polymerСтр.255
Resume:

Problem statement. For the structural calculations of constructions with fiber reinforced plastic materials (FRP), you need to know the long-term resistance in application conditions of the FRP. For quick information on durability FRP accelerated test methods are needed. These methods give you all needed information about material for the short time. The aim of the research is to develop a method for the accelerated determination of the durability of FRP bars for reinforcement of concrete. Results. A test method for the long-term strength and a mathematical formulation of predicting the durability of FRP bars have been developed. The proposed method takes into account the simultaneous effects of operational factors such as mechanical loads, temperature, and a chemically active medium. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in the development of a methodology for predicting the durability of polymer composite materials.

Keywords:
polymer composite reinforcement, modeling of conditions, aging, destruction, long-term strength, durability, prediction, corrosion environment.
Chutaev B.R., Nizamov R.K., Abdrakhmanova L.A.  Modification of PVC with organosilicatesСтр.263
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the effective organosilicates of various chemical nature on the technological and operational properties of polyvinyl chloride compositions. The specificity of PVC, which is characterized by high melt viscosity and low thermal stability, considers difficulties of combining it with organosilicates, therefore, the choice of the most effective of them is one of crucial tasks. Results. The effectiveness of the use of PVC-composites of the main industrial manufactured organic silicates Cloisite with the use of quaternary ammonium salts with different length and nature of alkyl chains and other functional groups is considered. It was determined that when using Cloisite 30B organoclay as a nanoscale additive, at a concentration of 0,6 phr. in PVC compositions, an increase in the strength of PVC-compositions by 23 %, a melt flow index by 1,5 times, is observed. Conclusions. It is shown that natural montmorillonite modified by quaternary ammonium salt Cloisite 30B, along with non-hydrogenated tall oil residues, has the greatest effect on the complex of positive effect on the properties of PVC. Possible mechanisms of stabilization and hardening are proposed, which is the result of chemical transformations of functional groups of tall oil in the PVC-composition matrix.

Keywords:
polyvinyl chloride, orgsnosilicate, polymer nanocomposite.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION
Nuriev A.F., Ibragimov R.A.  Improving the efficiency of construction of buildings and structures in extreme climatic conditions through the use of energy-saving technologiesСтр.272
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study is to identify the main features and relationships of the organization of construction of buildings and structures in extreme climatic conditions by modeling organizational and technological solutions using energy-saving technologies. Results. A model of a mobile wind, electric, diesel station was developed. The recommendations for energy saving, which will increase the level of energy efficiency during the construction of buildings and structures in extreme climatic conditions. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry is the possibility of improving the quality of construction of buildings and structures in extreme climatic conditions while reducing labor, material, technical and fuel and energy resources and adverse environmental impacts.

Keywords:
energy saving, energy efficiency, energy saving technologies, alternative energy sources, extreme climatic conditions.
ROADS, SUBWAYS, AIRPORTS, BRIDGES AND TUNNELS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Gabdullin T.R., Fazleev I.A.  Optimization of compaction process of macadam-mastic asphalt in pavement coversСтр.280
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to improve the quality of compaction of the top layer of pavement by optimizing the use of asphalt rollers, reducing depreciation costs for the use of compaction equipment and the financial costs of road construction. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the optimal number of asphalt rollers passes when compacting the top pavement layer, depending on the type and condition of the material being compacted for a specific type of roller. The proposed optimization is aimed at reducing the number of passes of asphalt rollers during the compaction of the top pavement layer, depending on the types of compaction used, the thickness of the compacted layer and the type of paving material. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the road-building industry consists in increasing the efficiency of using asphalt rollers and the productivity of their work, in rationally minimizing the total compaction time without compromising the quality of work performed.

Keywords:
compaction, pavement, paving material, crushed stone mastic asphalt, road roller, number of passes, quality, efficiency, efficiency.
Petropavlovskih O.K., Loginova O.A., Apakova D.R., Aliullina G.I., Ibrsgimova A.A.  Project management in the construction of artificial structuresСтр.290
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine the specifics of managing the construction of artificial structures using modern software products. The following tasks are defined: 1) to consider the Spider Project, the main advantages and disadvantages and principles of the software package; 2) to consider Primavera, the main advantages and disadvantages and principles of the software package; 3) to consider the Microsoft Project, the main advantages and disadvantages and principles of the software; 4) Study the examples of work in the software package Spider Project. Results. Main results of the research: three software packages for project management and calendar planning were considered. Presents their main positive and negative options. Identified optimal areas of application software systems. Conclusions. The significance of the results for transport construction is that with the use of modern project management methods, it is possible to establish optimal construction time of artificial structures, effectively develop a project for the installation of bridge structures, select high-tech sets of machines and mechanisms, and also competently coordinate the management process construction as a whole in accordance with the planned indicators.

Keywords:
project management, bridge, bridges, software, schedule, planning, Spider Project, Primavera, Microsoft Project.
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
Mudrov A.G., Mudrova A.A  Power analysis of high-speed cutting machineСтр.299
Resume:

Problem statement. To create a powerful root system and strong turf, road slopes are sown with grass or they grow naturally with various grass and shrubs, which requires a certain care for their maintenance, including mow. Famous domestic cutting machines are not always suitable for mowing non-uniform vegetation. They have limited cutting speeds of stems, large inertial moments, high energy costs, poor shrubs, etc. The purpose of the study is to develop a universal high-speed cutting apparatus for mowing grasses and shrub plantings of slopes, devoid of the drawbacks of known apparatuses, to conduct force analysis and optimization of force effects. Results. As a result of the study, a new design of a high-speed cutting apparatus based on a flat parallelogram mechanism, a connecting rod of which acts as a carrier of a knife strip with segments, providing high cutting speeds without friction with opposing plates, determined the pressure of moving links on the frame and the method of eliminating dynamic oscillations. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to create a new effective high-speed cutting apparatus for mowing grass and bushes of road slopes.

Keywords:
slopes of the roadway, the cutter bar mechanism planar and spatial alignment of the dynamic fluctuations.
ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND MUNICIPAL ECONOMY
Barysheva O.B., Sadykov R.A., Khabibullin Iu.Kh., Taimarov M.A.  High-temperature processing of municipal solid wasteСтр.307
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of modern methods of processing and disposal of solid waste (SW) with the prospect of developing and creating a device for recycling SW taking into account modern approaches to energy saving and environmental protection. Results. The main results of the study are to create a simple, reliable and technically sound method of SW destruction to obtain additional energy. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to create a device for the disposal of solid waste with the production of solid combustion products and further use as building materials and products for various purposes. As a result of the technological process of processing MSW, it becomes possible to return for the reuse of the resulting additional amount of energy.

Keywords:
solid domestic waste, energy saving, environmental protection, production of building materials, installation for solid waste disposal.
 
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