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FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRCUTURES
I.T.Mirsayapov, A.I.Garaev   Features of the calculation of the stress-strain state of slab-pile foundations under regime cyclic and cyclic loadingСтр.6
Resume:

problem statement. The purpose of the study is to consider various features of the calculation of the stress-strain state of the slab-pile foundation under various types of loads. The main task of this work is to analyze the existing methods of calculating slab-pile foundations under various types of loading. The urgency of the problem is caused by the lack of a calculation methodology that would reliably provide information about the joint work of the slab-pile foundation and the surrounding soil under regime cyclic loading. At the same time, the existing calculation methods have been developed for the case of cyclic loading with parameters constant in time. At the same time, in the actual operating conditions of many structures, the parameters of cyclic loading change at various stages of technological processes.A theoretical study of various methods for calculating the bearing capacity and settlement of a slab-pile foundation was carried out, depending on various types of interaction and changes in the stress-strain state occurring between the main elements of the slab-pile foundation and the surrounding soil mass, as well as elements with each other under various types of loading. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the analysis of various methods for calculating the stress-strain state of a slab-pile foundation under different types of loading allows us to evaluate the authors’ approaches to these calculations and determine what conditions for the interaction of the “foundation-soil mass” system remained open and under what types of loading.

Keywords:
slab-pile foundation, pile, foundation slab, precipitation, bearing capacity
Marat I. Shakirov  Raft-pile foundation ground base deformation under cyclic loadingСтр.19
Resume:

Problem statement. In modern conditions, in the construction of buildings and structures, one of the most important tasks in the design of buildings and structures, which require taking into account the influence of cyclic loads during their exploitation, is the forecast of raft-pile foundations ground base settlement, taking into account changes in strength and deformation characteristics. The purpose of the study is to establish the raft-pile foundations ground base deformation development patterns under cyclic loading on the basis of experimental research. Results. The main change patterns in deformations of raft-pile foundations ground baseunder cyclic loading are established, which serve as an experimental basis for creating new Methods for calculating raft-pile foundation ground base. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry lies in the fact that they allow more accurate and reliable evaluating of the settlement of raft-pile foundations under cyclic loading, increasing operational reliability and efficiency and developing adequate design solutions for such foundations

Keywords:
raft-pile foundation, deformations, forces, cyclic loading, foundation ground base, soil mass.
BULDING STRUCTURES,HOUSES
Valeriy N. Kupriyanov  Evaluation and regulation of water vapor condensation in enclosing structures.Стр.29
Resume:

problem statement. It is known that the resistance to vapor permeability of material layers and their combination change the patterns of water vapor condensation in enclosing structures. The purpose of the study is to establish the features of a constructive solution for the temperature formation at the beginning of condensation of enclosing structures and to estimate the duration of condensation in the given climate. A correlation has been established between the proportion of resistance to vapor permeability of the outer layer in the resistance to vapor permeability of the fence as a whole and the temperature of the onset of condensation. A regression equation has been obtained with an approximation reliability of 0.924, which makes it possible to determine D by the parameters of the enclosing structures. It is shown that by changing the parameters of the enclosing structures (D shares) it is possible to regulate them, and, according to the selected value, to design the enclosing structures with the required ratio D. A graphical method has been developed for determining the calendar duration of water vapor condensation in the given climate by comparing the enclosing structures with the annual course of the outdoor air temperature at the construction site. Conclusions. Tools for the design of enclosing structures have been obtained, which will reduce or eliminate the condensation of water vapor in the given climate.

Keywords:
enclosing structures, vapor permeability resistance, water vapor condensation, temperature of the onset of condensation, duration of the condensation period.
Nikolai G. Palagin,Georgy P Nikitin Alexey N. Trunov   Economic efficiency of manufacturing rectangular columns of one-story industrial buildings with overhead cranes from high-strength sand concreteAbstractСтр.41
Resume:

the research is due to the fact that in the European part of the Russian Federation there are mainly deposits of sedimentary carbonate rocks, which are not very suitable for use in reinforced concrete structures. At the same time, there are deposits of sand everywhere, the use of which as an aggregate for concrete instead of crushed stone is more environmentally friendly. It is also known about the economic efficiency of designing load-bearing structures made of high-strength heavy concrete. Studies have been carried out to determine the economic efficiency of manufacturing rectangular columns of one-story industrial buildings with overhead cranes (series 1.424.1–5) from high-strength sand concrete of classes VPB60 and VPB80 in comparison with columns made of heavy concrete of classes B20 ... B80 in relation to the city of Kazan. The objectives of the research were to compare the total consumption of steel and the total cost of materials for columns made of high-strength sand concrete of classes VPB60 and VPB80 in comparison with columns made of heavy concrete of classes B20...B80. The studies were carried out according to the engineering methodology based on current standards using MS Excel. The mechanical characteristics of sand concrete are taken on the basis of the results of research by the department of TSMiK KSUAU on the sands of local deposits. With an increase in the class of heavy and high-strength sand concrete, the total consumption of steel decreases and, as a rule, the total cost of materials decreases. When designing columns made of high-strength sand concrete of classes VPB60 and VPB80 and high-strength heavy concrete of classes B60 and B80, these indicators differ from - 1.8 to + 1.4%. The importance of the obtained results for the construction industry of the Russian Federation is to identify cost-effective solutions for rectangular columns of one-story industrial buildings with overhead cranes in terms of the total cost of materials and steel consumption, depending on the class of heavy and high-strength sand concrete

Keywords:
: high-strength sand concrete, heavy concrete, economic efficiency, resource saving, rectangular columns, one-story industrial buildings, overhead cranes.
BUILDING,MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Aleksey Y. Fomin, Rushaniya N. Askarova, Vadim G. Khozin   High-strength crushed stone from carbonate rocks for the arrangement of bases in road pavement structures. Стр.54
Resume:

the absence of quarries of high-strength stone materials in most of the European part of Russia, including in the Republic of Tatarstan, determines the search and application of materials, which are alternative in terms of properties. In addition, transportation costs for delivering crushed stone from solid rocks by rail, mainly from the territory of the Urals, for road construction purposes, reach 30-50% of the cost of crushed stone. Therefore, an effective alternative solution is the technological processing of crushed stone from low-strength rocks with sulfur melt, which leads to the production of a new material - high-strength crushed stone (sulfur stone). It can be said that earlier, sulfur waste was widely used to produce asphalt concrete mixtures, in this study it is proposed to strengthen the aggregate itself, i.e. carbonate crushed stone of local origin. The purpose of the study is to develop and study the properties of high-strength crushed stone from carbonate rocks obtained by impregnating it with sulfur melt. The main results of the study consist in achieving the required technical properties of carbonate crushed stone treated with sulfur: a decrease in water absorption (2-16 times), the volume of capillary porosity (7-11 times), an increase in hydrophobicity, water resistance, grade crushing (2-2.5 times), abrasion and frost resistance. The significance of the results obtained for the road construction industry consists in ensuring the design technical characteristics and durability of the bases of road pavement structures, using carbonate crushed stone treated with sulfur, while reducing their cost.

Keywords:
building materials, highway base, crushed stone, sulfur, impregnation, strengthening, sulfur stone.
TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION
Mukhametrakhimov R. Kh.,Ziganshina L.V   Technology and quality control of 3DCPСтр.64
Resume:

Relevance of the problem being solved is caused by the imperfection of 3DCP products, which is expressed in the formation of defects and deviations, one of the reasons for which is the lack of a quality control system for 3DCP. The purpose of the research is to develop the composition of operations and control tools for the additive manufacturing (3DCP). The influence of the features of CAD-model preparation, rheological and technological characteristics of the mixture (mobility and yield strength) on the quality of construction products printed on a 3D printer has been studied. It is necessary to take into account the features in the formation of the G-code of a CAD-model to obtain products on a 3D printer with the required length: elongation of the sample by an amount caused by the spreading of the raw mixture, as well as elongation of the sample by the distance from the center of gravity of the extruded raw mixture to its face in the initial and end positions of the nozzle. Nonmobile mixtures are characterized mainly by the formation of defects as a violation of geometry, straightness, gaps between layers and along the length of the layer, thickness differences, and the absence of spread. More mobile mixtures are characterized by a greater degree of formation of defects as geometry violations, straightness, thickness variation, flow, however, there are no defects as gaps between layers and along the length of the layer. The dependence of the geometric deviations of the length of printed sample, which is a multilayer strip, on the limiting shear stress of the mixture, under constant 3D printing modes, is expressed by a linear function ?l=?0,5276 ? ?0+168,31. Based on the identified features of 3DCP, the main provisions for the organization and implementation of quality control of 3DCP are proposed, which establish the composition of operations and means of control during the work performance. Significance of the obtained results for the construction industry consists in reducing the defects in 3DCP products by improving the quality control system in additive manufacturing, taking into account the influence of the features of CAD-modeling, rheological and technological characteristics of the mixture, as well as the composition of operations and control tools during incoming, operational and acceptance control.

Keywords:
concrete, rheology, 3D printing, 3DCP, additive technologies, construction technology and management, quality control.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
Renat A.Sadykov, Aida K.Mukhamezianova,Lyazzat R.Junussova, Aliya A.Elemanova,   Simulation of water desalination processes in a combined water treatment plantСтр.80
Resume:

The aim of the study is a physical and mathematical description of the transfer processes for desalting groundwater in a combined ultra- and nanofiltration water treatment plant used for water and heat supply systems. The objectives of the study are the following: correct formalization of the mathematical model of mass transfer processes in a combined water treatment plant; obtaining analytical closed solutions of boundary value problems of unsteady diffusion transfer for piecewise-homogeneous media under various conditions of uniqueness and unsteady, asymmetric boundary conditions on the contact surfaces of inhomogeneous media; and analysis of the obtained generalized analytical solution of boundary value problems of a mathematical model of a combined water treatment plant under various initial and boundary conditions. The main results of the study are that the authors formalized a mathematical model of the groundwater treatment process and a boundary value problem of a mathematical model of water desalination processes in a combined water treatment plant, and found analytical closed solutions to boundary value problems of unsteady molecular transfer for piecewise homogeneous media under various initial conditions of uniqueness and unsteady, asymmetric boundary conditions on the contact surfaces of two inhomogeneous media. The obtained analytical solutions of the formalized mathematical model make it possible to optimize the processes of water purification in heat power plants by finding the extreme values of the change in the concentration of suspended particles from independent variables. The analytical solutions can be test problems for more complex nonlinear boundary value problems of heat and mass transfer processes. For large-scale transitions, the developed mathematical model can be rewritten in dimensionless form, as a change in the relative concentration from the Fourier mass transfer criterion. In this work, analytically closed solutions of boundary value problems of unsteady diffusion transfer for piecewise homogeneous media are obtained under various conditions of uniqueness and unsteady boundary conditions on the contact surfaces of various homogeneous media, which are applied to the processes of water purification of heat supply systems. For large-scale transitions (from an experimental to an industrial installation), the formulation and solution of such boundary value problems can be written in a criterion form, as a change in the relative concentration from the Fourier mass transfer criterion. The significance of the obtained results lies in the fact that the obtained analytical solutions of boundary value problems make it possible to optimize the processes of water treatment in a combined water treatment plant and can become test boundary value problems in the numerical solution of more complex nonlinear boundary value problems of unconnected and interconnected heat and mass transfer. Optimal values of analytical solutions of boundary value problems tasks can be also used in the process control system when choosing energy-saving control modes.

Keywords:
drinking water, filtration, plant, mathematical model, boundary value problem, differential equation, conditions
Renat A. Sadykov, Aida K. Mukhamezianova, Svetlana A. Filimonova   Analytical and numerical calculations of the quasi-steady-state heat transfer mode in the enclosing structures of buildings and structuresСтр.90
Resume:

In real operating conditions of buildings and constructions, all transfer processes proceed under unsteady modes, which is associated with continuous changes in the parameters of the state of the outside air (seasonal, daily and shorter in time fluctuations), heat release and accumulation of heat and moisture in rooms as a result of functional processes and work of engineering and ecological systems of building and construction functioning (air conditioning, ventilation, heating, etc.). Therefore, the study of unsteady and quasi-steady transfer modes of buildings and constructions in the enclosing structures has a direct practical application and it is an urgent problem of our time. The aim of the study is physical and mathematical description of the quasi-steady process of conductive heat transfer through the enclosing structures of buildings with a periodic change in the outside air temperature and generalization of the obtained analytical and numerical solutions of the boundary value problem and the performed heat engineering calculations for any other enclosing structures and climatic zones. The objectives of the study are the analytical solution of unsteady and quasi-steady boundary value problems and the writing of the corresponding algorithms for calculating the temperature fields in the enclosing structures in the Mathcad and Microsoft Excel software, as well as the numerical modeling of the unsteady and quasi-steady conductive transfer in the Elcut and Ansys Fluent software. The main results of the research are that the authors formalized mathematical models of the boundary value problem of unsteady and quasi-steady heat transfer, which were used to create computational programs in Mathcad and Microsoft Excel software. The correctness of the statement of the boundary value problem and the calculation algorithms was determined by comparing analytical solutions with the results of calculations in the Elcut and Ansys Fluent software. It was also found that the calculation of a multilayer enclosing structure at extreme values of outside air temperatures in steady modes is necessary, but to obtain an objective assessment of the energy efficiency of building constructions, calculations are also required under unsteady modes of operation of buildings and constructions, which more accurately reflect the real processes of heat and mass transfer in them, taking into account the amplitude of fluctuations in outside temperatures. The paper investigates the change in the temperature of the enclosing structures of buildings and constructions during the day and formalizes a mathematical model for the transfer process of heat transfer through a single-layer enclosing structure. Also, a study of quasi-steady heat transfer through the enclosing structure was carried out using analytical and numerical methods, and heat engineering calculations applicable for any enclosing structures and climatic zones were presented. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that in the conditions of the intensive development of the construction industry and an increase in its efficiency associated with the development of new technologies, a decrease in material and energy costs for the production of building materials, the issue of taking into account the unsteadiness of heat and mass transfer processes in heat engineering calculations of various enclosing structures becomes urgent.

Keywords:
: mathematical model, enclosing structure, boundary value problem, heat transfer, calculation, mode, heat wave.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, BUILDING SYSTEMS FOR THE PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES
A.V. Busarev,I.G. Sheshegova, I.D. Mamakov   Study of deep wastewater treatment processes using high-pressure filtersСтр.103
Resume:

problem statement. Many industrial plants generate oily wastewater. Filtration is one of the methods of deep purification of these effluents from oil products. The most effective ter purification from oil products is carried out in high-pressure filters. The purpose of the research on water purification from oil products by the filtration method is to study the effectiveness of various types of granulated loading of high-pressure filters, as well as to determine the technological parameters of filtration. Research objectives: - study of the processes of purification of oily wastewater in high-pressure filters with different granulated loading; - determination of the optimal filtration rate; - determination of the influence of pressure in high-pressure filters on the cleaning efficiency; -study of the application of various methods of regeneration of the filtering load for the cleaning efficiency; Results. The main results of the research are that the type of the most effective granulated loading was chosen, the recommended filtration rates were determined, as well as the pressure in the high-pressure filters for oily wastewater treatment. The conducted studies have shown a rather high efficiency of cleaning oily wastewater high-pressure filters with a granulated load. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry lies in determining the most effective filtering granulated load, as well as the technological parameters of wastewater treatment from oil products in high-pressure filters. The best result (cleaning effect 75-81%) was shown by a two-layer granulated loading of anthracite and quartz sand. The filtration rate in high-pressure filters is recommended to be maintained within 6-7 m/h, the intensity of the wash water supply during regeneration is at least 14 l/s?m2.

Keywords:
wastewater treatment from oil products, methods of wastewater treatment from oil products, sorption, sorbents for purification of water from oil products, adsorption filter
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, SUBWAYS, AERODROMES, BRIDGES AND TRANSPORT TUNNELS
Olga K.Petropavlovskikh, Aniia A. Ibrаgimova, Ruslan R. Sadykov , Aidar R. Galiev , Rustam F. Gubaidullin   Improving the drainage system from the bridge deck of road bridgesСтр.113
Resume:

Formulation of the problem. The vast majority of road bridges in the Russian Federation were built quite a long time ago, when society did not yet pay much attention to environmental issues, as a result of which, on existing bridge structures, the sewage disposal system from the bridge deck is represented only by longitudinal and transverse slopes, and on those bridges where there are drainage pipes, the spillway is carried out under the superstructure without preliminary cleaning. The purpose of the study is to analyze foreign and domestic experience in improving drainage systems from the bridge deck of road bridges. The study is also aimed at identification of the most acceptable ways to solve the problem of obsolete drainage systems on bridge structures, namely, to identify treatment facilities capable of accumulating and draining water entering the carriageway of bridge structures. The study considers an example of improving an outdated drainage system from the bridge deck of a road bridge across the Bira River, in order to meet modern environmental requirements. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry and the current environmental situation lies in the possibility of reducing the negative impact of the transport and road complex on the environment, which is one of the priority areas for the modernization and development of the road network of the Russian Federation. Results. The main results of the study: foreign and domestic experience in solving the issue of rational drainage of surface runoff entering the bridge deck of road bridge structures is considered, using the example of a bridge across the Bira River, solutions are proposed for the rapid drainage of water from the bridge deck, allowing them to accumulate and drain. Based on this example, a hydraulic calculation and a wastewater calculation were made

Keywords:
drainage system, bridge structures, roadway, bridge deck, inspection, ecology, defects, drainage trays, hydraulic calculation, design flow, local treatment facilities.
ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY , HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Rinat K. Mukhitov, Nikita M. Budkevich   Identification of industrial heritageСтр.126
Resume:

The article deals with the issues of identification of industrial heritage objects from the standpoint of monuments of industrial architecture. The main purpose of this study is to identify objects of industrial heritage in the context of a valuable understanding of industrial architecture. The objectives of the research include: • determination of the industrial stage in the periodization of the development of industrial architecture; • analysis of the existing conceptual apparatus and systematization of international experience in determining objects of industrial heritage; • classification of industrial heritage objects according to the features identified during the study. The study reveals the features of the growing interest of society in the history and culture associated with the industrial heritage of the past. The basic concepts associated with the phenomenon of industrial heritage are defined, as well as chronological, typological features of industrial objects and their definition in Western and domestic practice are established. Based on the results of the study, the authors put forward an expert classification of industrial heritage objects depending on time boundaries and volumetric and spatial features. It is proposed to divide the material carriers of the industrial heritage into: 1) the production environment - represented by a set of factory buildings; 2) industrial infrastructure - with storage, energy supply and transport facilities; 3) social infrastructure - which consists of residential buildings and settlements organized to ensure the operation of industrial enterprises, as well as a set of socio-cultural and housing and communal facilities created to serve the working population. The research materials are applicable to the theoretical and historical aspects of architecture in order to further study industrial objects from the standpoint of architectural monuments, as well as objects of cultural and urban heritage.

Keywords:
history of industrial architecture, identification of industrial heritage, classification of industrial heritage, Nizhny Tagil Charter, Dublin principles
 
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