New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY, HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aitov R.R., Afanasyeva E.A., Tokmakova G.Y.  The principle of alternating colors as a characteristic feature of Kazan tatar’s architectural traditionsСтр.7
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of this work is to determine the main characteristic feature of tatar’s traditional architectural coloristics. Results. The main results of the study were obtained in the comparative analysis of rural architecture of the Tatars of the XIX-XXI centuries lived behind Kazan. The characteristic features of polychromy in the architectural decoration of traditional and modern rural estates are revealed. Possible variants of application of the alternating colors principle and the used color scales are listed. The origin of the alternation colors’ principle in the architectural polychromy of the Kazan Tatars is discussed. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architectural theory and practice lies in the possibility of their use in the reconstruction of historical objects and in the development of modern national architecture.

Keywords:
tatar architecture, architectural decoration, architectural polychromy, alternating colors principle.
Zeyfert M.G., Ezhov R.V.  Features of the formation and development of large multifunctional architectural complexes of antiquityСтр.18
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the origin, formation and development of large multifunctional architectural complexes of antiquity: imperial palaces, villas, forums. Results. The main results of the study are as follows: 1. The structure of multifunctional architectural complexes of antiquity created over the centuries has been revealed. Features of space-planning solutions of the complexes allow us to consider them as systems with a complex hierarchical structure, and in the study use the decomposition – partition method. Systems are studied according to one feature – the functional purpose of the elements included in them and they are divided into several levels. Based on the analysis, the sources and stages of the formation of large architectural complexes of antiquity are established. 2 The features of space-planning and compositional solutions of large architectural complexes of antiquity are revealed on the example of imperial palaces, villas and forums. 3. Examples of continuity in architecture, the use of techniques developed by ancient architects, when creating architectural complexes and buildings in the XVI-XIX centuries are presented. Conclusions. The significance of the results is to identify the basic principles of the formation and development of large architectural complexes of antiquity, the possible use of the techniques of ancient architects in modern architecture.

Keywords:
ancient architecture, multifunctional architectural complexes, space-planning structure, architectural composition, continuity.
Kiselnikova D.Y.  The influence of metropolitan architecture on the formation of the architecture of apartment buildings in Novosibirsk in the late XX-early XXI centuriesСтр.28
Resume:

Kiselnikova Darya Yusufovna assistant E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts The organization address: 630099, Russia, Novosibirsk, Krasny prospect, 38

Keywords:
apartment building, architecture of Novosibirsk, styles, Soviet modernism, postmodernism.
Minibaeva A.R., Fazleev M.Sh., Khayrullina A.T.  Identification of architectural objects located in Hermitage Garden of the city of Kazan in the beginning of the XXth centuryСтр.39
Resume:

Problem statement. The objective of this article is to identify location of the buildings and facilities pre-revolutionary architecture in the layout of the Hermitage Garden in the beginning of the 20th century. The article also provides the Garden buildings and facilities architecture development review. Results. Main results of the research are provided in comparison and analysis of archival, iconographic and bibliographic materials for the purpose of identification of the buildings and facilities in the Garden layout. Conclusions. The architectural importance of the research results is identification of pre-revolutionary architectural objects in the Hermitage Garden area that allows to trace their location, development chronology and stylistic peculiarities.

Keywords:
garden layout, graphical reconstruction and restoration of Kazan gardens, buildings and facilities pre-revolutionary architecture.
Nadyrova D.A., Aksenova I.A.  Typology of multifunctional profitable complexes and buildings of the central part of Kazan in the late XIX-early XX centuryСтр.48
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the typology of multifunctional profitable complexes and buildings by the predominance of certain internal functions in them in the second half of the XIX-early XX century and to determine its impact on the space-planning solution of objects. Results. The main results of the study are that the typology of multifunctional profitable buildings of Kazan depending on the adaptation and functional purpose of the internal areas of the objects, as well as features of space-planning solutions. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture is that this research allowed for the first time to make a typology of functional filling of multifunctional profitable buildings of the late XIX-early XX century in Kazan.

Keywords:
multifunctional profitable complex, tenement house, architectural style, cultural heritage, adaptation, function, typology.
Nadyrova Кh.G., Vavilonskaya T.V.  National identity of architectural and historical environment of tatar villages of Kazan district of the late XIX-early XX centuriesСтр.61
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study is to identify national spatial-planning, architectural and decorative-stylistic identifiers of development of Tatar villages of Kazan province of the specified period. The method of research is a systematic analysis of the development of Tatar villages. The sources of the research were bibliographic, archival and natural materials. Results. The main results of the study are the revealed features of spatial-planning structures of villages, spatial-planning and decorative-stylistic solutions of housing and religious complexes as national identifiers of Tatar villages of Kazan district of the late XIX-early XX centuries. Conclusions. The significance of the results of the study is to identify the national identity of the architectural and historical environment of the historical Tatar villages of the late XIX-early XX centuries as the basis for the development of their new identity and sustainable development in the present and future.

Keywords:
identity, national identifiers, rural architecture, folk traditions, spatial planning structure.
Popov A.О., Biryuleva D.K.  Town-planning development of the territory of the Main Admiralty building complex in Saint Petersburg of the period from 1800 to 1900Стр.72
Resume:

Problem statement. The development of the territory of the complex of buildings of the Main Admiralty in the period from 1800 to 1900 coincides, and in many respects predetermines the stage of compositional improvement of St. Petersburg. Results. The result of the authors’ research is the systematization of archival data and historical and cultural studies conducted by the authors, on the basis of which a clear chronology of changes in the key territory for St. Petersburg is compiled. Conclusions. The research presented in this paper allowed us to identify the stage of intensive development of the territory, as well as the stage of compositional improvement.

Keywords:
historical and cultural monuments, engineering restoration, reconstruction, structural solutions.
HOUSES ARCHITECTURE. THE CREATIVE CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITIES
Galimullina A.D., Korotkova S.G.  Architectural means of formation of children’s developing and educational spacesСтр.79
Resume:

Problem statement. The article discusses the role of the architectural environment in the education and development of the individual, in the effectiveness of the educational process. The aim of the study is to determine the means of architecture that affect the feelings and behavior, age and behavioral characteristics of children, as well as to formulate ways of organizing and planning children’s developmental and educational spaces. Results. The main results of the study – revealed architectural techniques of perception of architecture by children, allowing to help the child to adapt in space; analyzed examples of children’s developing spaces; given the ways of organization of educational and developmental space. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture is that architectural spaces influence the behavior of children, being a developing environment, forming the correct spatial composition, thereby creating a favorable environment for children. Awareness of this fact can help in the design and construction of children’s educational spaces, with the help of system techniques in architectural and planning solutions.

Keywords:
children’s space, formation of space, architectural environment, influence of architecture on the child, children’s architecture.
Gataullina A.A., Novikov S.V.  Architectural classification of intra-quarter spaces of Kazan SocgorodСтр.89
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Problem statement. The aim of the study is to classify the open public and yard spaces of the Socgorod of Kazan. Results. The main results of the study consist in structuring and identifying the features of the planning organization of the territory of the Socgorod for the further preservation, reconstruction and modern use of the object of cultural heritage. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architectural science is that they will significantly improve the quality of knowledge and understanding of comfortable neighborhoods and complexes such as Socgorod, which can be used in modern conditions.

Keywords:
social city, Socgorod, micro district, yard space, classification of public spaces, public spaces.
Ponomarev E.S., Ivshin K.S.  Territorial branding project strategyСтр.100
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Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the main properties of the language of architectural forms as the main tool of territorial branding. Results. The main results of the study are the use of the fundamental characteristics of the architectural language in the formation of the figurative-branded context of urban space; the definition of an architectural language as a supporting frame of the visually perceived environment of the city; identifying the architectural language as the key to the implementation of the design strategy for territorial branding. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture lies in the novelty of the approach to the formation of a unique image of existing urban spaces, which consists in interpreting architectural forms as a visually perceptible language that tells the viewer the original qualities of the territory of the city district. Using an architectural language as a syntactic reflection will provide a mechanism for communicating urban space with the viewer. The project strategy of territorial branding, at the same time, acquires an instrument of architectural and spatial reorganization, which allows us to comprehensively consider the process of environmental renovation of the existing districts of Russian cities.

Keywords:
architectural language, territorial branding, identity, the image of the city, the prevailing visual-perceived environment of residential areas.
Rachkova O.G., Denisova E.D.  Solving the problems of designing the residential complexes during the renovation of the territories with the development of the 70s in MoscowСтр.108
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Problem statement. The aim of the work is to study the possibility of using the reflected sunlight from the surface of the buildings to ensure the standard values of insolation and rehabilitation of living rooms of apartment, when designing dense buildings in the conditions of the territory renovation. Results. Based on the research and experimental design, the master plan of the renovation territory was completed. It included a compact residential complex with the normative provision of insolation of the living rooms. It was achieved not only due to the direct sunlight, but also the sunlight reflected from the surface of the opposite facades that have not previously been taken into account in calculation. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture consists in designing a compact residential complex of variable number of storeys, having a modern silhouette and enriching the dense buildings, when solving the general plan in the territory intended for renovation. It gives the possibility to obtain the normalized insolation of the residential premises of the complex’s apartments, due to a new calculation method that takes into account not only direct, but also reflected rays from special reflective surfaces of facades.

Keywords:
residential complex, territory renovation, dense building, insolation, sanitation of premises, reflected sunlight.
Salyakhova M.R., Shulpina Y.V.  To the question of the relevance of the formation of temporary architecture as a way to transform public spaces in winterСтр.120
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to analyze the problems and prospects of improving public spaces in the winter, as well as to identify typological features of temporary structures that embody new progressive directions and meet the principles of creating a comfortable urban environment of a new type in accordance with the needs of future generations. Results. The main results are a comprehensive assessment of innovative approaches in the design of temporary architecture in the structure of public spaces in the winter. The analysis of examples of the use of temporary architecture in the world practice of designing public spaces is carried out. The relevance of the development of this type of structures in accordance with modern trends of architectural and figurative solutions is substantiated. The work reflects the influence of the architecture of seasonal structures on the formation of urban spaces in the cold period of time. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture is the relevance of the prospects for the development of comfortable public spaces, the formation of which is not influenced by the climatic factor, but sets a parameter for creating effective and ergonomic solutions. The typology and innovative approaches to the formation of temporary architecture as an important environmental object with great potential for quick response to socio-economic and artistic-aesthetic needs of society are determined.

Keywords:
temporary architecture, public spaces, climate factor.
Khaziakhmetova E.V., Akhtiamov I.I.  The principles of greening the architectural space of a modern schoolСтр.131
Resume:

Problem statement. The modern school should lay the desire of children to the creation of nature and the world around. Therefore, the goal of this work is to propose new architectural principles and solutions for organizing the architecture and space of the school based on the principles of environmental education. Results. The main results of the work are to identify environmentally sound solutions for the organization of the architectural space in modern secondary schools. Conclusion. The significance of the research results for architecture is to identify new architectural solutions for the organization of school space, which will become the basis for creating a new typology of schools with a bias in environmental education. New design principles can have a beneficial effect on the upbringing and development of children, as well as the creation of a humane and cultural society. The obtained solutions can be used as recommendations for the design of school facilities.

Keywords:
school space, architecture of educational facilities, greening of school space, environmental education, educational environment, environmental education.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
Zakirova Y.A., Khmelnitskii D.S.  Model of the formation of the transport framework of the Kamsk agglomerationСтр.141
Resume:

Problem statement. The main objectives of the study presented in the article are to identify the factors and trends in the spatial development of the Kamsk agglomeration, to determine the principles for the formation and placement of the main infrastructure elements of the Kamsk agglomeration transport framework (multimodal and logistics complexes, transfer hubs). Results. The main results of the study are to identify the principles of the formation of multimodal, logistics complexes and transport hubs in the planning structure of the Kamsk agglomeration, to develop a model for the development of the transport skeleton of the Kamsk agglomeration. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results lies in the fact that the formed model of the transport framework can be used in developing a strategy for the spatial and territorial development of the Kamsk agglomeration, updating the territorial planning schemes of municipal districts and master plans for settlements within the boundaries of the agglomeration.

Keywords:
Kamsk agglomeration, transport framework, transport infrastructure, urban planning, territorial development, model of the transport framework.
Nureyev T.M., Popov A.O.  Prospects for the use of three-beam space-planning structure in the creation of residential mesh buildingsСтр.154
Resume:

Problem statement. The study aims at revealing new urban possibilities in applying the three-prong design structure with changes in sanitary rules and norms (SanPiN) in 2017 in the Central and southern zones of insolation Russia. Results. The main results of the study consist in the development of proposals for the Central and southern insolation zones of Russia, allowing to achieve the maximum normative indicators of the density of the territory. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture is that the authors defined the geographical boundaries for the use of residential three-beam space-planning structure in modern conditions of housing, on the basis of the analysis of urban indicators, including in terms of renovation of existing building area, as well as the typology on the basis of the rotation angles of the three sectors in different azimuth directions.

Keywords:
urban planning, insolation, high-density residential buildings, residential grid buildings, three-beam space-planning structure, yard space, renovation.
Stepanchuk A.V., Salyakhova V.M.  Some aspects of formation of public spaces as a place of communication of tourists and local residents (on the example of Arsk)Стр.164
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the types of urbanized public spaces included in the infrastructure of creative tourism. Results. The analysis of approaches to the definition of creativity and its connection with tourism and intangible cultural heritage allowed us to identify the types of urbanized public spaces in which communication and interaction between tourists and local residents is carried out. On the example of the project of urban planning of Sovetskaya square and Bolshaya street modern approaches to improvement of public spaces and their inclusion in the sphere of tourism are shown. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for architecture consists in approbation in the conditions of real design of methods of participating design and formation of public spaces as a place of communication of tourists and local residents.

Keywords:
creativity, creativity, objects of cultural tourism, intangible cultural heritage, creative tourism, cultural tourism, Arsk, public space.
Shaimardanova K.A., Prokofiev E.I.  Transport interchange hub as a city-forming factor in the development of peripheral territoriesСтр.175
Resume:

Problem statement. The article is devoted to the analysis of transport hubs in the peripheral urban areas, as one of the key aspects of its development. The analysis of international and domestic experience in order to identify the features of the development of peripheral territories by organizing transport-transfer clusters on them is presented. Results. The formation of transport hubs in the peripheral territories of the city entails the development of infrastructure, the construction of new facilities, the increase in places of employment, thereby setting a new vector for the development of the city, as well as allowing the competent organization, planning and solution of urban planning tasks. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture lies in the fact that the organization of modern transportation hubs in the peripheral territories of the city is a vector of their development. A transport hub that meets the new requirements and capabilities of the transport infrastructure is a new center of attraction for city residents, investors, and developers.

Keywords:
transport hub, peripheral territories, transport infrastructure, transport hub, transport and logistics cluster.
BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Zamaliev F.S.  Determination of the monolithic steel-reinforced concrete floors effective beam widthСтр.183
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine the design width of the slab of independent «T»-section beams and ribs of a monolithic composite section of steel-reinforced concrete floor or slabs. Based on the analysis of technical domestic and foreign literature, the task is set to identify the state of the issue on the design width of the slab as independently used beams of «T»-section, and beams that are part of a monolithic reinforced concrete floor. Based on the analysis of the stress-strain state of a bent composite section of various types of floors, write new analytical expressions and obtain formulas for determining the estimated width of the shelves of the «T»-section. Results. The main research results consist of an analysis of the current approach to determining the design width of a slab, identifying the stress-strain state of a bent element of a «T»-shaped composite section and deriving a formula for the estimated width of a slab of a t-steel-reinforced concrete section. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the identification of the stress-strain state of a bent steel-reinforced concrete element. The research results, analytical expressions for assessing the strength of the «T»-section of steel-reinforced concrete floors can be used in the construction of ribbed plates and beams of new buildings in steel-reinforced concrete, wood-concrete, precast-monolithic reinforced concrete versions and in the restoration of ceilings of buildings that have served their standard life.

Keywords:
steel-reinforced concrete structures, «T»-section, shelf width, analytical dependencies.
Mirsayapov Ilshat T., Nikitin G.P., Khanbekov M.F., Mirsayapov A.I.  Full-scale tests of the slab foundation for high-precision equipment with simulation of the moving part of the machine by gradual loadingСтр.191
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of full-scale tests was to study the foundation and the soil mass at the stage-by-stage loading of the foundation with the assessment of its ultimate deflection and roll. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the stress-strain state of the system «foundation-frame», to identify patterns of deflection of the slab foundation and its roll in the simulation of the moving part of the machine. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to choose the type of foundation for high-precision equipment with moving parts, establishing its optimal dimensions, taking into account engineering-geological conditions.

Keywords:
slab foundation, full-scale tests, high-precision equipment, precipitation and roll of the foundation, rigidity of the «foundation-frame» system.
Strahov D.E., Gimranov L.R., Nuraev I.A.  Researching of snow retention system on welted seam pitched roofsСтр.200
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine load bearing capacity of a particular snow retention system installed on pitched, welted seam roofs by utilizing bolt tightened locks. Results. The main results of the research includes obtained theoretical and experimental values of load bearing capacity of roof snow retention system installed on pitched welted seam roof elements with particular type of locking mechanism. Also as a result of a study failure mode and sequence is established and determined advantages and disadvantages of snow retention system of interest. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry is in the values of load bearing capacity of such retention system. Obtained failure modes of the retention system its pros and cons.

Keywords:
snow retention system, welted seam roofs, FEM analysis, experimental studies.
Fabrichnaya K.A., Sharafutdinova C.I.  On the issue of strengthening vaults («Monier» type) with composite materials in the reconstructionСтр.210
Resume:

Problem statement. Currently, in normative documents there is no methodology for calculating the reinforcement of brick vaults on metal beams («Monier» type) with composite materials, and therefore its development is an urgent task. Results. Static calculations of a fragment of vaulted ceilings on steel beams were performed taking into account the presence of structural defects, increased load on the floor and the use of various amplification schemes with two types of composite materials. Deformations of elements, characteristic zones of stress distribution, the sequence and nature of cracking for specimens without reinforcement and defects, without reinforcement with a defect, were established for various reinforcement schemes with composite materials at all stages of loading until the structure is virtually destroyed. A comparison of the results for various amplification options made it possible to establish the most effective of the considered schemes. The values of cracking and destructive loads for all considered structures are obtained. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to confirm the effectiveness of the use of composite materials to strengthen Monier type vaults. A technique for assessing the strength and deformability of arches on steel beams when reinforced with composite materials is proposed, which allows to evaluate the effectiveness of the structural solution.

Keywords:
vault, arches, stress-strain state; reinforcement, composite materials, calculation methods.
Khayrullin L.R., Mingatin A.R.  Causes of defects in sandwich-type panels during their production on lines with roller thermal pressСтр.220
Resume:

Problem statement. In the manufacture of sandwich panels with metal cladding and a middle layer of individual filler sheets using in-line technology, a transverse joint of the middle layer occurs arbitrarily in the finished panels, located arbitrarily along the length of the panel. The technology for the production of sandwich panels on production lines with a thermal press, based on the principle of rolling a sandwich billet between the upper and lower roller installations, already implies the presence of panel defects in the form of «non-adhesive» cladding. The aim of the work is to identify the causes of defects in the sandwich panels during their production on the lines with roller thermal press. Results. The main results of the study are to identify the causes of the indicated defects, namely the presence of a difference in the thickness of the filler and the appearance of additional force acting on the side of the rollers on the moving skin at the jump points of the thicknesses of the joined sheets of the filler, as a result of a change in the direction of speed of the rollers. Conclusions. The significance of the research results for the construction industry lies in the fact that, based on an understanding of the mechanics of the occurrence of defects, the research results can be used to improve the equipment for the production of sandwich panels and, in general, to improve the quality of production of building envelopes.

Keywords:
three-layer panel, sandwich panel, filler joint, panel production technology, roller installation, «non-adhesive».
FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Koroleva I.V., Sagdatova M.R.  Experimental studies of gray clay behavior under conditions of triaxial compression at different moistureСтр.228
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of studying of clay soil of a disturbed structure in a triaxial compression device of a cylindrical shape with dimensions 38?76 mm, to study the behavior of samples with different moisture under static loading. Existing data on experimental research in this direction are of a disparate nature. Results. The main results of the study consist in obtaining data on the strength and deformation changes of gray clay under triaxial compression, depending on the moisture content of the samples. The analysis of the results of the investigations is carried out and certain regularities in the behavior of gray clays under static loading are established. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to increase the reliability of the assessment of bearing capacity and sediment due to the establishment of the influence of humidity on the change in the strength and deformation parameters of a clay soil sample under conditions of triaxial compression.

Keywords:
gray clay, static loading, triaxial compression, soil moisture, strength and deformation characteristics.
Kuznetsov I.L., Khusainov D.M., Khabibulina A.G., Penkovcev S.A.  Development of demountable foundation of ballast type for rack-mounted constructionСтр.236
Resume:

Problem statement. Development of foundations for rack structures that meet modern criteria for dismantling and the possibility of use in conditions of restrictions. Results. Proposed the calculation model of the construction of demountable foundation of ballast type under the support of air lines, cellular communication, lighting equipment, antennas, etc. Calculation of the model was made in the software complex «Lira-CAD». The design scheme of the proposed design is a spatial finite element model «foundation-ground base». Studies have shown a significant influence of the density factor filling cavities demountable foundations on their bearing capacity. Significant influence is also exerted by the calculated resistance of the soil under the sole of the Foundation on the value of the calculated moment perceived by the Foundation. The obtained numerical results made it possible to determine in the specified range of design loads the structural parameters of the Foundation necessary for their perception: the number, size and reinforcement of cells, the type of filling of cell cavities. Conclusions. The significance for the construction industry lies in the feasibility of using the developed demountable foundation of ballast type, based on the requirements of the new standards for rack structures. Normative bearing capacity and necessary deformability of these foundations from the action of design moments is provided.

Keywords:
demountable foundation, rack structures, ballast type foundation.
Mirsayapov Ilizar T., Nurieva D.M., Shakirov I.F.  The researches of the influence from 12-story administrative building reconstruction on the technical condition surrounding buildingsСтр.245
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of research is to determine the degree of influence from multi-storey building reconstruction with adding floors on the settlements and technical condition of surrounding existing buildings. Results. The main results of the research are to get a new data about deformations in the ground base and in the constructions of surrounding buildings while stress-strain state changing of the ground base at difficult engineering and geological conditions. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry is to find the effect from building reconstruction on the surrounding buildings, the research results can be used during buildings reconstruction with a significant loads increase on the ground base.

Keywords:
foundation, pile-slab foundation, stress-strain state, bearing capacity, numerical study.
Mirsayapov Ilizar T., Shakirov M.I.  Combined plate-pile foundations settlement calculation during cyclic loadingСтр.255
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to develop a method for calculating the settlement of a combined plate-pile foundation, taking into account the effect of repeatedly repeated cyclic loads in the process of construction and operation of buildings and structures. Results. A method for calculating the settlement of the basement of a slab-pile foundation has been developed, taking into account the complex stress-strain state of its elements under cyclic loading. Conclusions. An improved method for calculating the sediment of slab-pile foundations under the action of a cyclic load allows to increase reliability, calculated bearing capacity, reduce settlement, and as a result to obtain more cost-effective solutions when designing foundations of this type.

Keywords:
cyclic loads, plate-pile foundation, between-pile space, weak soil, base settlement, efforts, deformations, stress.
Khasanov R.R., Galeev R.R.  The influence of the combination of cyclic and static loading on deformations and physico-mechanical characteristics of water-saturated loamy soilsСтр.263
Resume:

Problem statement. Тhe aim of the work is to study the influence of the combination of cyclic and static loading on the deformation of water-saturated loams, as well as a description of the changes in the deformative properties of the soil after cyclic exposure. To achieve this goal, the following was completed: – carrying out experimental studies of clay soil deformation under conditions of a combination of cyclic and static loading with fixing the readings of strain indicators in a continuous mode; – layered determination of the deformation characteristics of soils under the stamp and beyond in laboratory conditions before and after the test; – analysis of the results of experimental studies. Results. As a result of the studies, some patterns of deformation and changes in the characteristics of water-saturated loamy soils with a combination of static and cyclic loading were revealed. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that it has been established that even a short cyclic load compared with a static one can lead to a noticeable increase in the deformation of the soil base and its speed.

Keywords:
physical-mechanical features, volume loading tray, static loading, cyclic loading, soil deformation, strain rate.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
Akhmadiev F.G., Malanichev I.V.  Reducing of pressure losses in ventilation ducts based on the solution of the structural and parametric optimization problemСтр.271
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the work is to evaluate the possibility of applying structural-parametric optimization methods to solve the problem of reducing pressure losses in ventilation ducts during the design of ventilation systems. Results. The main results of the study are the development of an approach to solving structural and parametric optimization problems in the process of designing ventilation systems based on free software. At the first stage, the problem of determining the geometric properties of the flow region that are optimal in accordance with the specified criterion as lowest pressure loss is formulated as nonparametric, where the structural variables are the porosity of the fictitious medium that impedes the flow, the distribution of which determines the geometry of the flow region. The solution of the nonparametric problem is carried out by the conjugate method. At the second stage, the resulting solution is parameterized with a small number of structural variables, which are the coordinates of the control points of the splines that form the contours of the flow region. The solution of the parametric formulation of the structural optimization problem makes it possible to more accurately take into account the effects of turbulence, especially in the near-wall regions of the flow. Genetic algorithm is used as an optimization method. The results of test calculations for optimization of the ventilation duct shape can reduce pressure losses by 4-6 times. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry is the confirmed effectiveness of the structural and parametric optimization for solving the problems of designing ventilation systems with improved aerodynamic characteristics.

Keywords:
pressure loss, ventilation ducts, structural and parametric optimization.
Broyda V.A., Dorofeenko N.S.  Efficiency of direct free cooling in an air conditioning system for rooms with significant heat inputСтр.279
Resume:

Problem statement. Free cooling (FC) in the air conditioning system reduces the energy consumption of the compressors of the refrigeration machine, saves the life of the compressors, its widespread implementation is an urgent task. The area of rational use of direct free cooling substantially depends on: the characteristics of the local climate, the requirements for the microclimate of the room, and the heat input to the room in a significant part of the year. The purpose of the study is to identify the effectiveness of direct free cooling, based on a calculation based on generally available climatological information, taking into account the operation of an air cooler, steam humidifier, main fans, performed for the annual cycle of operation of the air conditioning system. Results. The main results of the study are in the proposed method for assessing the energy efficiency of direct free cooling and the calculations for different climatic regions of Russia, confirming its high efficiency and, therefore, the feasibility of use. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that the use of free cooling systems together and instead of engine cooling systems with a fairly wide range of microclimate requirements is possible for different climatic zones. It is suitable for a large group of rooms with heat and can significantly reduce energy costs for air conditioning.

Keywords:
conditioning, free cooling, energy consumption, power, efficiency.
Varsegov A.V., Varsegova E.V., Osipova L.E., Sadykov R.A.  Areas of damage during emergency on the gas pipelineСтр.288
Resume:

Problem statement. Main gas pipelines are classified as energetically stressed objects. With the increase in their service life, there is a need to model an emergency breaks and analyze the distribution of the damaging factors of the accident. In the article, the emergency rupture was simulated for a section of a high pressure gas pipeline and a test problem was numerically solved, which allows calculating the pressure at the rupture point, the discharge height, and the possible gas zone depending on the diameter of the gas pipeline and the pumping mode. Results. A numerical experiment was conducted on a stationary outflow of gas – methane from a high pressure gas pipeline. The dependences of the distribution of the total pressure and velocity along the axis of the gas ejection are obtained. The zone of possible toxic effects on humans and animals, as well as the boundary of the zone of potential thermal effects, provided that there are external sources of ignition, are determined. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that, knowing the parameters of free jet gas outflow during a possible emergency depressurization of the gas pipeline, it is possible to calculate the gas zone by the known methods, which increases the safety of residential buildings during the design of gas pipelines. Keywords: gas pipeline, emergency depressurization, discharge height, numerical simulation, gas zone.

Keywords:
gas pipeline, emergency depressurization, discharge height, numerical simulation, gas zone.
Krutova I.A., Zolotonosov Y.D.  Pipe-in-pipe coil heat exchangers based on spring-twisted channelsСтр.297
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study of this work is to carry out calculations of coil heat exchangers of the pipe-in-pipe type with a varying bend radius of a helical spiral based on spring-twisted channels and to evaluate the energy efficiency of such devices. Results. The main results of the study consist in the fact that during the course of the work the authors developed an algorithm for calculating of coil heat exchangers of the pipe-in-pipe type with a varying bending radius of a helical spiral based on spring-twisted channels, implemented in the MATLAB system, determined the geometric dimensions and thermo-hydrodynamic parameters of coil apparatuses. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the possibility of applying for the technological needs of modern, more efficient and compact heat exchange equipment and the rationale for this choice. Therefore, with equal initial data, conical heat exchangers based on spring-twisted channels are more efficient compared to conical and cylindrical coils with a heat exchanger element in the form of a smooth pipe, since they have a smaller heat exchange surface to achieve the necessary thermo-hydrodynamic indicators.

Keywords:
heat transfer, heat exchanger, spring- twisted channel, coil, screw pipe.
Taimarov M.A., Lavirko Y.V., Sadykov R.A.  Energy saving in technology of production of ethyl biodiesel fuel from rape seedsСтр.305
Resume:

Problem statement. Replacing hydrocarbon fuels from oil with fuels derived from vegetable oil-containing raw materials is an important economic task. Vegetable oil-containing raw materials, which include rapeseed is renewable. The main difficulties in the technology of biodiesel rapeseed fuel should include the use of dangerous to human health methyl alcohol. Therefore, technologies are being developed to replace methyl alcohol with safe ethyl alcohol. The aim of the study is to determine the efficiency of heat supply in the form of superheated steam from the boiler burning oilcake after pressing rapeseed oil in the press. Task: complex use of rapeseed oilcake as fuel. Results. The alcohol is designed to perform the transesterification reaction, which consists in obtaining ethyl fatty acids from rapeseed oil with the release of glycerol. The boiling point of methyl and ethyl alcohol respectively equal to 64,7 оС and 78,4 оС. Ethanol, compared to methanol, less active in the reaction of transesterification. Therefore, the heating temperature of the reactor to produce ethyl fatty acids in the interesterification reaction in accordance with the boiling point of ethyl alcohol may be higher compared to methyl alcohol, on average, 10 оС. Typically, rapeseed biodiesel technologies use heat from an external heat source. Therefore, the technology proposed in this paper with heat supply to the transesterification reactor from the built-in boiler burning rapeseed oilcake is effective and allows to obtain heat savings. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that the rapeseed oilcake obtained at the pressing stage can be used to produce superheated water vapor in the built-in boiler in order to supply it to external consumers. The thermal balance during compaction and fusion reactions 1000 kg of ethyl biodiesel showed that sufficient heat for fusion can be generated in the boiler by burning oilcake obtained from pressing 3063 kg of rape seeds.

Keywords:
biodiesel, heating, etherification, ethyl, alcohol, cavitation, vegetable oils, rapeseed, technology, catalyst.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, WATER CONSERVATION CONSTRUCTION
Busarev A.V., Sheshegova I.G., Еfremova R.Y.  To the issue of oil products removal from natural waters by sorption methodСтр.313
Resume:

Problem statement. As a result of vigorous human activities petroleum products pollute the surface water supplies. Sorption is one of the methods of purification of natural water from oil products. The most effective purification is carried out in adsorption pressure filters. The purpose of researching natural water from petroleum products by the sorption method is to study the effectiveness of its purification using various types of sorbents. Results. The main research results are to determine the most effective sorbent for the purification of natural water from oil products, as well as the technological parameters of their purification in pressure adsorption filters. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in determining the type of the most effective sorbent, as well as the technological parameters of water purification from surface sources from oil products in pressure head adsorption filters.

Keywords:
purification of natural water from oil products, methods of purification of natural water from oil products, sorption, sorbents for purification of water from oil products, adsorption filter.
Sainova V.N., Katkov I.S., Hounas Kaсi  Reconstruction of biological wastewater treatment plants to intensify the extraction of nutrientsСтр.320
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to consider possible methods for the reconstruction of biological wastewater treatment plants for the intensification of nutrient elements’ extraction from them. Results. Modern technologies that are the theoretical aspects of the process are considered. The main results of the study are the development of the reconstruction option of existing biological wastewater treatment plants, which allows achieving high process efficiency due to the organic combination of anaerobic and aerobic zones. Conclusions. The significance of the received results for the construction industry lies in the technology improvement opportunities for deep wastewater treatment for the design and construction of wastewater systems. After improvement the cleaning efficiency can reach 90 %.

Keywords:
aeration tank, wastewater treatment, wastewater, biological treatment, nutrients.
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Bogdanov R.R., Ibragimov R.A., Korolev E.V.  Optimization of the fractional composition of the aggregate mixture for self-compacting concreteСтр.327
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal fractional composition of aggregates for self-compacting concrete, provided that the maximum bulk density and particle packing density were achieved. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the fractional composition of aggregates for self-compacting concrete, designed for waterproofing flat roofs. To solve the formulated problem, mathematical methods of planning an active experiment were used, namely, a simplex-lattice plan. It was found that the mixture has the maximum bulk density, consisting of: coarse aggregate (crushed stone) fraction 5-10 mm – 48 %; enriched fine aggregate (coarse sand) of a fraction of 0,16-5 mm – 16 %; fine aggregate (fine sand) fractions of 0,16-0,63 mm – 36 %. In this case, the maximum bulk density and packing density of the particles of the aggregate mixture were 1840 kg/m3 and 0,82, respectively. Conclusions. The significance of the results of the work for building materials science lies in the expansion of ideas about the formation of dense packaging for the considered recipe system, characterized by its own physical (material and geometric) parameters, as well as in establishing a relationship that demonstrates the local advantages of the simultaneous use of both continuous and discontinuous granulometry. The significance of the results of the work for the construction industry lies in establishing the optimal ratio of the mixture of aggregates, which allows to obtain self-compacting concrete with high physical and technical properties.

Keywords:
self-compacting concrete, fractional composition, mathematical design of the experiment, packing density, bulk density, simplex-lattice plan, aggregate.
Kamalova Z.A., Sagdiev R.R., Aleksandrova M.A., Valiev A.I.  Development of a method for predicting the durability of a three-layer roofing structureСтр.336
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research is the development of the method for predicting the durability of three-layer walling using roofing sandwich panels with expanded polystyrene filler as an example. Results. The main results of the study are: - The analysis of regulatory prerequisites for the prediction of the durability of building envelopes; - The study of existing methods for predicting the durability of building envelopes; - The development of the finite-element model of the roofing sandwich panel, which allows us to study the mechanism of loss of performance, of the materials being studied, to determine the main factors affecting their operational life; - Modeling the operation of roofing sandwich panels under load using the PC «Lira»; - The study of the patterns of destruction and deformation of roofing sandwich panels with a filler of expanded polystyrene when varying specified constant stresses and temperatures. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to improve the methods of forecasting the durability of enclosing structures, allowing to determine the service life of building materials and products.

Keywords:
sandwich-panels, foamed polystyrene, sheet assemble designs, prefabricated panels, block-farms, durability, prognostication, temperature and time analogy.
Krasinikova N.M., Iksanova Z.F.  The effect of polysilicate on the formation of cement stoneСтр.347
Resume:

Problem statement. Siliceous materials have long attracted the attention of technologists – in concrete. Currently, many organosilicon products appear on the market for related fields, the effect of which is not appreciated. Results. In this work, we study the effect of a new polysilin brand – Silin VN-M manufactured by HIMUNIVERS LLC (Kazan) on the properties of cement paste and stone. The obtained contractual dependence of the strength of cement stone on the amount of the ultrafine additive Silinoma VN-M has several peaks that lie in a very narrow concentration range. The first peak (extremum) lies in the region of thousandth values (1,97?10-3 % of the mass of cement), and the subsequent peaks corresponding to the hundredth and tenth values are significantly lower than the first. Conclusions. A positive effect of introducing silinom into cement systems, depending on its content, was established in the work, and the maximum effect is manifested at a dosage of less than 0,001 % by weight of cement. Research materials may be useful in modifying cement systems.

Keywords:
nano-additives, polysilicate, cement stone, strength, structure formation.
Mukhametshina R.M., Morozov V.I.  Metal coatings based on complex compounds of copper(II) with nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acidСтр.359
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study was to study the complexation processes of copper (II) with nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid and to identify the possibility of using nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid as copper (II) ion ligands to obtain stable solutions of chemical copper plating. Results. The formation of copper(II) complexes with nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The distribution of complex forms based on the processing of EPR measurements was studied in the form of the dependence dP/ dpH - f (pH), where P is the parameter of the EPR spectrum. The compositions were established and the stability constants of complexes in various media were calculated. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that new materials have been studied on the basis of complexes of copper with nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid. It has been established that nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid forms stable complex compounds with copper ions and is a promising material for the preparation of protective and decorative metal-polymer coatings on the surface of products used in the construction industry.

Keywords:
metal coatings, electron paramagnetic resonance, stability, copper plating, ligand, nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid.
Stroganov V.F., Sagadeev E.V., Ibragimov R.A., Pimenov S.I., Stoyanov O.V.  Investigation of the effect of modifiers of various structures and mechanical activation of a binder on the biostability of cement compositesСтр.368
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of modification methods on the biostability of cement composites: carbon nanotubes; carbon nanotubes together with superplasticizer; mechanical activation of the binder together with nanotubes and superplasticizer. Results. The main results of the study consist of kinetic studies to determine the biostability of a series of modified cement composites obtained with mechanical activation of Portland cement. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that the biostability data of cement composites modified with nanotubes both separately and in combination with superplasticizer, as well as those obtained by mechanical activation of a binder together with nanotubes and superplasticizer, were obtained.

Keywords:
cement composite, superplasticizer, carbon nanotubes, mechanical activation, citric acid.
Suleymanov A.M., Smirnov D.S., Lobanova A.S.  A method for evaluating the durability of swelling rubber for packersСтр.376
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the development of the methodology and the conduct on its basis of comparative tests and assess the durability of foreign and Russian elastomer used for the production of packers. Results. The main results of the study are to establish a regime for accelerated testing of water swellable packers (WSP) to determine the change in their properties during aging in a thermo-humid and stress-strain state. Factors of WSP aging in this methodology are: temperature, water and mechanical stress. Accelerated tests were carried out in two stages. The first stage includes accelerated testing of samples in air-dry conditions. The second stage includes bench tests in a water-saturated state. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the elastic properties of the elastomer affect the ability of the packer to contain the hydrostatic pressure of the interstratal water. In addition, the hardness, elasticity, and the value of the residual deformation of the elastomer contribute to its preservation in the event of mechanical stresses that may occur during its installation, delivery or storage. WSP with an elastomer manufactured by Kvart has higher hardness, elasticity and degree of swelling compared to its counterpart, it is less susceptible to destructive processes during thermal aging and retains its properties better, respectively, has a greater durability.

Keywords:
water swellable packers (WSP), elastomer, hydrostatic pressure, thermal aging, durability.
Khaliullin M.I., Dimieva A.I., Faizrakhmanov I.I.  The influence of addition of mechanically activated mineral fillers on properties of composite gypsum bindersСтр.386
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of the method of grinding quartz and carbonate fillers in a ball mill and in an electro-mass classifier with intensive mechanical activation of the surface of the filler particles on the efficiency of their introduction into the composition of composite gypsum binders. Results. It was found that due to the effect of mechanochemical activation of the surface of the particles of quartz filler when grinding in an electromassifier to an optimal specific surface of 500 m2/kg with the introduction of 5 % by weight of ground additives in the composition of composite gypsum binders 15 % increase in strength indicators is achieved compared to compositions without the introduction of filler additives. With the introduction of additives in an amount of up to 15 % by weight, the strength and water resistance are maintained at the level of control samples. Compared with the introduction of a similar amount of quartz filler, milled in a ball mill, a maximum increase in strength indicators by 10% is achieved. When grinding carbonate fillers in an electric mass classifier compared to grinding in a ball mill, there is a slight increase in the strength of the binder. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the expediency of the use of electro-mass classifier in the preparation of additives quartz filler, introduced into the composition of composite gypsum binders.

Keywords:
composite gypsum binder, mineral filler, mechanochemical activation, gypum-scement-pozzolanic composition, artificial stone, water resistance.
Shelikhov N.S., Sagdiev R.R., Timirgaliev M.M.  Design of a method for assessing the durability of building materials in aggressive environmentsСтр.394
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of this work is to create a method for assessing the durability of concrete in an aggressive environment, and to increase the service life by using hydraulic additives in the form of thermally activated clays. Results. It has been established that using additives of thermally activated clay, cement strength can be increased within certain limits. The assumption that thermally activated clay is able to increase the resistance of concrete in a sulfate environment has been confirmed. The research results made it possible to propose a method for calculating the durability of concrete operating in a sulfate medium. Conclusions. An analysis of the results makes it possible to propose an algorithm for evaluating the durability of concrete in a sulfate medium, complementing existing methods.

Keywords:
additives, strength and resistance of concrete to aggression, thermally activated clays.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION
Bogdanov A.N., Listratov J.A.  Construction control by ground laser scanningСтр.401
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research is to identify the advantages of using ground laser scanning (GLS) as an instrumental method during construction control as part of a complex of digital and BIM-technologies during construction and subsequent monitoring of the state of construction structures. Results. The sequence of works performance and the method of evaluation of scanning results at application of the method of ground laser scanning as an instrumental method of assessment of quality of construction and installation works are shown. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry consists in reducing the time frame and simplifying the procedure for carrying out construction control, accelerating the adoption of decisions on the structures of construction objects with the detection of critical deviations from the design indicators, the possibility of continuous monitoring during the construction of construction structures, both during the construction and during their further operation.

Keywords:
construction control, ground laser scanning, 3D-model, BIM-technology, point cloud.
Mudrov A.G., Mudrova A.A.  The use of controlled force in construction technologiesСтр.410
Resume:

Problem statement. In our country, every year the volume of housing and industrial construction increases, in which devices with force effect are widely used: for driving piles, compaction of soil and asphalt concrete coatings, extraction of pipes and piles, etc. the devices Used for these purposes do not always satisfy production workers because of the high cost of foreign products, and the equipment of Russian production is limited in quantity and imperfect. The aim of the research is to develop universal small-sized effective devices for force action in various construction technologies. Results. As a result of the study, new small-sized devices are proposed that use directional controlled force action both when driving or removing piles, compacting soil or asphalt concrete pavement, and for self-movement of the device (as a mover). Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is the creation of new small-sized universal effective devices for compacting soil and asphalt concrete, and for driving and removing piles and pipes and self-propulsion, as a mover.

Keywords:
force action, sealing device, pile driving, inertial force impulses.
Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Galautdinov A.R., Garafiev A.M.  Electric curing of concrete using conductive mineralСтр.418
Resume:

Problem statement. Hydration and evaporation of water during electric curing of concrete leads to an increase in its electrical resistance and the cost of electricity. Further heating becomes difficult and ineffective in achieving curing period corresponding to achieved 40% of the compressive strength of concrete. Increasing the efficiency of electric curing of concrete is relevant in this regard. Solving this problem will improve the quality of concrete structures and reduce energy costs while cold weather concreting. The authors propose to modify the composition of the concrete mix with a small amount of a conductive mineral – shungite. The goal of this work is to study the effect of ground schungite on the performance indicators of electrode heating of concrete (concretemix temperature, electrical resistance and concrete strength) during cold weather concreting. Results. It has been established that the modification of concrete mix with ground schungite leads to low electrical resistance of concrete with increasing temperature compared to unmodified composition in the first day of heating. It is shown that the introduction of shungite into the concrete mix in an amount of 1 % by weight of cement does not lead to a significant change in the kinetics of heat release of the cement binder, indicating an increase in the temperature of the concrete mixture during electric curing of concrete due to the conductive mineral shungite. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to increase the efficiency of electric curing of concrete using conductive mineral shungite and the possibility of reducing material costs in cold weather concreting.

Keywords:
cold weather concreting, electric curing of concrete, concrete, conductive mineral, shungite.
ROADS, SUBWAYS, AIRPORTS, BRIDGES AND TUNNELS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Gayfutdinov R.F., Khafizov E.R.  Aprobation of existing methods for assessing the wear resistance of crushed stone by the example of stone materials used in the Republic of TatarstanСтр.427
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this study is to review various methods for assessing the wear resistance of stone materials that exist today and are used in road construction. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the wear resistance of materials used by local road-building organizations in the Republic of Tatarstan. Results. An analysis of the main methods for studying the wear resistance of crushed stone: Micro-Deval, Nordic test and shelf drum – showed the relationship between the Micro-Deval and Nordic test methods. The dependence of the wear indicator on the genesis of the rocks was revealed. Obtained data on wear indicators using these methods for stone materials of various quarries and rocks used by local organizations in the Republic of Tatarstan. Conclusion. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry consists in the possibility to navigate when choosing stone material for the construction of road coatings. Evaluation of existing methods for assessing the wear resistance of crushed stone will simplify the survey and will help in further regulatory regulation of this issue.

Keywords:
aggregates, abrasion resistance, roads, Nordic test, Micro-Deval, shelf drum.
Mavliev L.F., Vdovin E.A., Konovalov N.V., Khuziahmetova K.R., Sharapova N.B.  Development of road-building material based on gravel-sand-cement mixture with optimal granulometric compositionСтр.435
Resume:

Problem statement. In many regions there are no stocks of strong crushed stone which replacement at construction of highways by the processed local materials (the gravel-sand mixture with cement, gravel-sand-cement mixture, «lean» concrete, roller-compacted concrete) – one of perspective directions of intensification and decrease in cost of road construction. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to obtain optimal compositions of road-building materials based on cement and local mineral raw materials, unsuitable or limited in use in the device of road surfaces. Results. The analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the use of processed mineral raw materials in the construction of roads, the properties of local gravel, natural sand and sand from crushed gravel, as well as the optimal compositions of processed materials and the possibility of using them in various structural layers of road surfaces. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to justify the possibility of using unsuitable or limited in the use of local mineral raw materials in the preparation of gravel-sand-cement mixture of optimal granulometric composition. Road-building materials based on local mineral raw materials of M40, M60 and F25 strength grades have been developed.

Keywords:
gravel-sand mixture of optimal composition, pavement, gravel-sand-cement mixture, roller-compacted concrete, indicators of standard compaction, physical and mechanical properties.
Maystrenko I.I., Zinnurov T.A., Maystrenko T.I., Egorova I.I., Erochin D.I.  Estimation of road bridges resource indicators based on the analysis of structural changes and damage accumulation in structural elementsСтр.444
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to develop a generalized algorithm for analyzing the structural state of bridge structures structural elements, which allows, by selecting control and controlled factors, to assess the resource indicators of bridge structures. Results. The main results of the study consist in the analysis of the values of the conditional probability of failures at characteristic points of the operating time (at the time of the assessment, to the depth until the next scheduled inspection and to the depth to the expected exhaustion of the project resource), which characterize the reserves of the carrying capacity of the system under the conditions of static strength and fatigue strength (durability). Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the road bridges design consists in improving and optimizing the procedures for calculating the road bridges steel structures for strength and endurance.

Keywords:
road bridge, steel structure, durability, structural state analysis, resource, traffic flow.
Smirnov D.S., Brodneva V.E., Lobanova A.S.  Analysis of application experience of warm asphalt mixesСтр.455
Resume:

Problem statement. The road construction season in the climatic conditions of the Republic of Tatarstan is limited in time, therefore, the main laying of asphalt mixes is carried out from April to October. The range of carriage of such mixtures, taking into account the territory of the republic and the limited number of asphalt mixing plants, is often 100 or more kilometers. With the increasing cost of energy resources, the aim of the study is to identify a decrease in energy costs for the production of asphalt mixes. Results. The main results of the study lead road workers to the use of warm asphalt mixes, which can solve these problems by reducing the temperature of preparation and laying of asphalt mixes. A separate niche in the field of modification of asphalt mixes is occupied by natural waxes and synthetic paraffins. They are used for the production of warm asphalt mixes, as well as to give cast asphalt mixes better workability. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the use of a warm mixture made by the presented technology and concentrate by the Canadian company «CantatAssociatesInc» allows you to extend the season for laying asphalt mixture, up to freezing temperatures. The range of the wagon and the residence time of the mixture in the car body is much longer. The mixture does not cool down for a long time, remains plastic, homogeneous. In addition, the mixture is odorless, which is essential for laboratory tests.

Keywords:
warm asphalt concrete (WAC), asphalt concrete mix (ACM), bitumen, mineral powder, additives.
 
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