New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

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Maintenance №:2 Year:2021


FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Mirsayapov Ilizar T.  The load-bearing capacity of slab-pile foundations, taking into account the redistribution of forces between piles during cyclic loadingСтр.5
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the work is to study the load-bearing capacity of the raft-pile foundation under cyclic loading, taking into account the redistribution of forces between the piles. The load-bearing capacity of a raft-pile foundation under cyclic loading consists of three components: piles, the soil under the slab and soil under the lower end of the piles. The sediment of pushing through the raft-pile foundation significantly changes the distribution of loads on the piles, especially on the extreme and corner ones, which are overloaded. In this article, this process is considered in three-dimensional mode, taking into account the joint deformation of all elements of the system «pile cap – piles–soil between piles – soil below the toe». It takes into account the redistribution of forces between the elements of the system under cyclic loading due to the occurrence of deformations of the soil, pile grillage and piles in the appropriate conditions. The load-bearing capacity of the raft-pile foundation is determined for the stage when tangential stresses along the side surface are absent in the upper and middle part of the pile as a result of reaching the maximum shear resistance. The soil is forced under the tip when the stress under the fifth pile and under the plate exceeds the fatigue strength and maximum deformations of the soil under three-axis cyclic compression. Results. Theoretical studies are carried out and the redistribution of forces between the main elements of the raft-pile foundation is considered. The change in the stress-strain state of the base of the raft-pile foundation under cyclic loading due to the redistribution of forces between the corner, extreme and ordinary piles is considered. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that for the first time the proposed method allows us to assess the load-bearing capacity of the slab-pile foundation. Comparison of the results of calculations for the proposed model with experimental studies showed good convergence.

Keywords:
raft-pile foundation, pile, settlement, soil, cyclic loading.
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Islamov A.M., Fakhrutdinova V.K., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Zakirova K.I.  Surface modification of PVC by aqueous colloidal dispersion of graphene nanoplatesСтр.13
Resume:

Problem statement. In the work the authors investigated the possibility of using an aqueous colloidal dispersion of graphene nanoplates for surface modification of PVC and its effect on the properties of the resulting composites. Results. It has been shown that as a result of diffusion impregnation of PVC in the colloidal dispersion of graphene nanoplastics to an optimal degree of swelling (0.17 %) and subsequent temperature exposure in the surface layers of composites, ordered structures are formed, which leads to an increase in surface microhardness (by 36 %), abrasion resistance (by 81 %), etc. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the development of technological parameters for the diffusion modification of PVC to obtain products with enhanced surface properties and high resistance to various operational factors.

Keywords:
polyvinylchloride, graphene nanoplates, diffusion, swelling, gradient.
Litovchenko D.P., Shiryaev A.O., Korolev E.V., Vysotskaya M.A.  Influence of polymer and plasticizer compatibility on the quality indicators of bituminous binderСтр.22
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of the compatibility of the polymer and various plasticizers on the quality and stability indicators overtime of the final product – polymer-bitumen binder (PBB). Results. At the initial stage of the research, the basic set of characteristics of the starting materials (bitumen and plasticizer) was determined. The structure formation of the studied binders was controlled by varying the concentration of the plasticizer, which was used as mazut, I-50 oil, Uniplast, extract of selective oil refining (ESP), Catgol. The study of plasticizing additives was carried out for volatility in the range of technological temperatures for the preparation of PMB, viscosity indicators, and their group composition was also evaluated. In the course of the experiment, the dynamics of changes in the indicators of the properties of modified binders, as well as their thermal stability, due to the composition of the plasticizer and its compatibility with the polymer used, were revealed. It is proposed to investigate the compatibility of the components: plasticizer and polymer, at the preparatory stage, before the preparation of laboratory formulations of PBB. Recommendations have been developed for the use of plasticizers to obtain effective compositions of polymer-bitumen binders. The contribution of the compatibility of the «polymer-plasticizer» system to the stability of PBB to destructive processes of separation and ageing has been studied. Conclusions. The significance of this topic is also because at present there is no single regulatory documentation governing the requirements for plasticizers for modifying bituminous binders, including the preparation of PMB. The studies carried out convincingly demonstrate that the compatibility of the polymer and the plasticizer has a decisive influence on the quality indicators of modified bituminous binders; however, this aspect has not been properly studied for the systems under consideration.

Keywords:
polymer-bitumen binder, plasticizer, polymer, compatibility, oil road bitumen.
Mukhametrakhimov R.Kh., Lukmanova L.V.  Influence of Portland cements with different mineralogical composition on basic properties of 3D-printed compositesСтр.37
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to study the effect of Portland cements with different mineralogical composition on the rate of plastic strength of set cement, the main rheological characteristics of mixtures and the physical and mechanical properties of 3D hardened composites, to determine the features of their choice from among studied types of Portland cements when designing of compositions for 3DCP. Results. It was found both types of cements without mineral additives and cement with additives are most expedient to use in developing of concrete and mortar mixes for 3DCP from the position of availability of cements on the market. From the point of view of the mineralogical composition of cements, it was found cements with a high content of clinker minerals C3S and C3A are the most expedient to use because of providing a quick set of the strength of the freshly formed concrete mix at the initial time of hardening in 3DCP. From the point of view of the rate of plastic strength, mixes based on CEM II/A-P 32.5 N and CEM II/A-S 32.5 R are the most effective, which are characterized by an earlier initial set compared to the rest studied compositions. From the point of view of obtaining the most optimal rheological indicators and high physical and mechanical properties, mortar and concrete mixes based on Portland cement CEM I 42.5 N, sand with fineness modulus Mk = 3, cement-to-sand (C/S) ratio of 1:3 and mobility class Pk 2 (according to Russian standard GOST 5802-86) are the most advisable to use in 3DCP. Nevertheless, it is possible to use other studied Portland cements in 3DCP, which, to a lesser extent, contribute to obtaining optimal rheological properties, in conjunction with modifying additives. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is to justify the choice of Portland cement when designing compositions for 3DCP taking into account its availability in the construction market, mineralogical composition, rate of structure formation and obtaining the most optimal rheological parameters and high indicators of physical and mechanical properties of composites.

Keywords:
concretes, mortars, cements, 3D-printing, 3DCP, additive manufacturing, rheology.
Rakhimova N.R., Rakhimov R.Z.  Influence of calcined clays additions on the composition of reaction products and properties of compositional alkali-activated slag cements with low content of alkali reactantСтр.50
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to investigate the features of the property- and structure-formation processes of binary ground granulated blast furnace slag – calcined clays cements activated by 4M NaOH concerning percentage, amount and chemistry of reactive phase of calcined clays. Results. The main reaction products of compositional alkali-activated slag cement were C-N-(A)-S-H gel, calcite, zeolites, faujazite, analcime. Compositional alkali-activated slag cement incorporated with 28 days compressive strength up to 30 MPa is proposed as a result of performed studies. Conclusions. It is stated that thermally treated clay with a 60 % of reactive phase was found to be suitable as a supplementary precursor to granulated blast furnace slag. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that the presented results contribute to the development of theoretical basis, raw materials base and range of non-clinker low-temperature mineral binders.

Keywords:
slag, clay, alkali, binder, calcination, strength.
Khozin V.G., Khokhryakov O.V., Kozlov R.V.  The environmental rating of «carbonate» cements is low water demand and concrete based on themСтр.60
Resume:

Problem statement. To evaluate «carbonate» cements of low water demand and concretes based on them according to environmental indicators, calculated by the clinker capacity of binders. Results. Developed by the authors «carbonate» cements of low water demand with a clinker content of 20 to 70 % surpass standard cements in all technical parameters and can replace them in the production of concrete, while having the lowest «carbon footprint», assessed by the environmental rating proposed by L. Evans and M. Mutter. It is proposed to consider the environmental rating not only for cement, but also for cement concrete and structures made of it, covering their entire life cycle up to the stage of disposal of the dismantled object. The ecological index КцСО2 of «carbonate» cements of low water demand was calculated and it was shown that in comparison with European cements, also containing limestone additives, it is 2 times lower. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is to substantiate the use of «carbonate» cements of low water demand, as having the lowest content of cement clinker, which meets the most stringent environmental requirements for carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

Keywords:
«carbonate» cements of low water demand, environmental rating, CO2 emissions, concrete, cement.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION
Shaehov A.F., Koklyugina L.A., Ibragimov R.A.  Study of the influence of air flows on the safety of carrying out lifting operations by a tower craneСтр.67
Resume:

Problem statement. At present, the effect of wind action on the structures being mounted is not taken into account. The pulsating component of the wind load is especially dangerous. The purpose of this study is to improve the methods for determining the dangerous zone of the tower crane operation near the facilities under construction, depending on the wind strength and the height of the mounting horizon. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the effect of wind speed, the pulsating component of the wind on the change in the danger zone of a tower crane, depending on the height of its work. The main structures used at the construction site are taken as the mounted loads: formwork, panels, floor slabs. Conclusions. The impact of the wind has a significant effect on the increase in the hazardous area of the crane operation. This impact increases with increasing windage. In order to reduce wind pressure, it is necessary to provide for measures to reduce the resistance of the surface of the load and prevent it from swinging. The coefficient was obtained in addition to the regulatory requirements for determining the hazardous area of the tower crane operation. The main types of cargo used at the construction site with high windage parameters are considered and their possible deviations during construction and installation work are determined by calculation.

Keywords:
construction site, danger zone, wind loads, windage.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, WATER CONSERVATION CONSTRUCTION
Busarev A.V., Selyugin A.S., Lisenkov R.A.  Oil-containing wastewater treatment of railway transport enterprises by pressure flotation methodСтр.76
Resume:

Problem statement. Many industrial plants produce oily wastewater contaminated with petroleum products and suspended solids. One of the methods of oil-containing wastewater treatment is pressure flotation. The purpose of the work is to study the efficiency of cleaning industrial effluents of railway transport enterprises by the pressure flotation method. Research objectives: 1) study of the purification of oily wastewater with the addition of reagents; 2) study of the purification of oily wastewater with an increase in pressure in the saturator; 3) study of the purification of oily wastewater with a change in the residence time of the liquid in the saturator. Results. The main results of the research are to determine the efficiency of oil-containing wastewater treatment using pressure flotation. The studies carried out at the experimental installation showed sufficiently high efficiency of using flotations with a horizontal fluid movement for the treatment of oily wastewater. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the possibility of using the developed technology for the treatment of oily wastewater using pressure flotation at enterprises that repair railway rolling stock.

Keywords:
oil-containing wastewater, oil product contamination, treatment, pressure flotation, experimental installation, research.
ROADS, SUBWAYS, AIRPORTS, BRIDGES AND TUNNELS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Zinnurov T.A., Majstrenko I.Yu., Erokhin D.I., Zamilova A.Kh., Umarov B.Sh.  Investigation of the effect of thickenings in fiberglass reinforcement on adhesion to concreteСтр.84
Resume:

Problem statement. The combined action of concrete and reinforcement is mostly ensured by adhesion. It is proposed to increase the cross-section of fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP) locally to achieve a higher bond strength. Thick places are creating during the production of FRP by intervening scraps in the structure on reinforcement while threads are pulling through a die hole. Results. The main results of the work consist of the experimental study of a new profile of FRP with the determination of the strength and deformation characteristics of the adhesion, performed by GOST 31938-2012. Conclusions. The importance of the research results obtained for the construction industry is that bars locally increased cross-section have 67.8 % more adhesion effect compared to similar reinforcement without thickening and 46.6 % more adhesion compared to other manufacturers. This solution can be used in cases where the length of the embedment in concrete is not sufficient to transfer forces, so it is an alternative to hooks, nuts, etc. used for steel reinforcement.

Keywords:
fiberglass reinforced polymer, adhesion, anchoring, thickening, testing, strength.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
Grishina M.P., Tolmachev A.E., Siraeva A.M., Orlova N.G.  Analysis of the accumulated experience in the reconstruction of industrial territories on the example of German citiesСтр.94
Resume:

Problem statement. With the development of technologies, the relevance of effective urban regulation is growing. One of the main tasks of urban planning regulation of post-industrial cities is the method of determining the most profitable way of developing abandoned industrial territories. Thus, without studying the current urban planning processes, assumptions about the options for the development of the city. Results. The results of this study are the initial stage of painstaking analytical work on the formation of the domestic modern theoretical basis for the management of Russian cities. The research results are aimed at incrementing the best urban planning solutions to the domestic experience. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in the discovery of new methods and features of urban planning reconstruction of the existing industrial territories within the city. The author also reveals prototypes of industrial areas and approaches to their reconstruction. In the course of the study, using the example of two German cities, three morphotypes of industrial territories were considered: integrated, adjacent and autonomous. The article describes the meaning of relationships and infrastructure in the urban space.

Keywords:
Germany, urban planning, reconstruction, industrial territories.
Zakharova E.V., Dembich A.A., Sayfutdinova A.M.  Reconstruction of the identity of the place during the implementation of urban reconstruction (on the example of the territory of the Yamskaya Sloboda, Kazan)Стр.105
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to search for and determine the historical and cultural identity of a fragment of the historical center of the city of Kazan (Yamskaya Sloboda), by highlighting the lost functions and features of the environment, as well as further developing recommendations for renovating the site in modern socio-economic and cultural conditions. Results. Methods have been developed for the preservation, recreation and development of the historical and cultural identity of a fragment of the historical center of Kazan on the example of the territory of the Yamskaya Sloboda. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry and urban planning practice lies in the possibility of applying the revealed principles of organizing space within the framework of the reconstruction and integrated development of the territory of the Yamskaya Sloboda of the historical settlement of Kazan, taking into account the value and degree of preservation of its individual fragments.

Keywords:
historical and cultural identity, preservation and tourist use of the architectural heritage, the spirit of the place, the urban development of historical settlements, the historical center.
Latypova T.A.  Classification of open spaces of urban activity (on the example of urban squares in Kazan)Стр.118
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to create the authors classification of open spaces of urban activity. Results. Existing theories and concepts about urban space were studied and analyzed, revealed modern global trends and approaches to the urban spaces classification, three city squares in Kazan were studied and analyzed, compiled the authors classification. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture and urban planning is that the compiled classification can be used in urban planning practice in the territories of new buildings when introducing spaces of urban activity.

Keywords:
urban space, functional process, classification, urban activity.
HOUSES ARCHITECTURE. THE CREATIVE CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITIES
Akatyeva A.O., Khabirov R.I.  Modern trends and principles of the architectural organization of palliative care centersСтр.127
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the study is to identify the main trends and principles of the architectural organization of modern palliative care centers. The research objectives are: define tendencies and specificity of architectural planning and functional solutions in hospices, formulate and practically apply architectural principles of their organization. To solve the problems, the analysis of modern domestic and foreign practice of architectural design and construction of hospices was carried out; as well as, analysis of theoretical works and review articles. Results. The following trends in the architectural design and organization of hospices were revealed: the humanization of the hospice complex, including ensuring the patients stay with relatives and friends, the formation of a comfortable environment for communication and isolation, attention to the aesthetic environment and the emotional impact of the environment; the formation of a home environment; spatial clarity; universal design; inclusion in the complex of spaces for social, spiritual and religious support. The work formulates the principles of the architectural and spatial organization of hospices: spatial clarity and coherence; creation of a holistic and universal environment; a variety of scenarios for organizing spaces and processes; openness and mobility; the priority of the home environment; integration of spaces for social and spiritual support. The principles were applied by the authors in the new adult hospice in Kazan. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in the formation of universal principles of the architectural, planning and functional organization of the palliative care center. The results of the study will form the basis for the formation of technical specifications, design and construction of hospices.

Keywords:
palliative care, hospice, accessible environment, medical center, architectural principles, humanization of the architectural environment.
Guseva A.S., Akhtiamov I.I., Akhtiamova R.Kh.  The system of rooftop residential modules with сomfortable daylight distribution as an effective method of mass housing renovationСтр.137
Resume:

Problem statement. The study aims to develop an innovative model of compact housing for a productive lifestyle in a modern city. Particular attention is paid to the industrial mid-rise residential buildings of the 1960-70s, which are in dire need of renovation, being widely represented in Russian cities, including Kazan. Results. Based on the theory of architecture and urbanism, proposed are the principles of organizing a comfortable living space, concerning natural lighting. These principles were compared with the urban planning standards (for the city of Kazan, the Republic of Tatarstan) and the existing methods of housing renovation. This analysis revealed that adding extra housing modules on the rooftops of existing mid-rise mass housing would have a positive economic effect. Thus, 2-level timber extensions were proposed for the rooftop of a typical 5-storey residential building. This model was tested in a conceptual project for Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, where the system of private and public spaces ensured unique natural light distribution, for the physical and psychological comfort in urban housing. Conclusions. The results are aimed at solving several topical issues for Russian cities, including Kazan: 1. Mass housing renovation with sustainable architecture trends; 2. The increase of these residential areas economic value; 3. Population density increases, with enhancing the residents physical and psychological comfort; 4. Visual diversity of the residential areas environment.

Keywords:
residential module, mass housing, renovation, urban environment, insolation, economic efficiency.
Nureyev T.M., Popov A.O., Nureeva D.T.  Methodology for creating a residential three-rayed space- planning structureСтр.147
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this study is to create a methodology for designing a residential three-rayed space-planning structure for small and medium-rise buildings. The methodology was created for the central and southern insolation zones of Russia in the conditions of sanitary standards of 2017. The methodology is applicable in countries located in both hemispheres of our planet with mirrored conditions of the Russian insolation standards. Results. A methodology has been developed that creates many types of «daughter» residential sections based on a single «T-shaped» three-rayed residential section, which is called the «mother». The applied result of the research was a method of 27 planimetric methods of architectural combinatorics and kinetics, as well as two patents. The presented method is implemented in Russia: in the renovation of the residential quarter No. 75 of the city of Menzelinsk, Republic of Tatarstan. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for architecture lies in energy-efficient design, expressed in a reduction design time and an increase the types of «daughter» residential sections. The methodology was created for the future computer program for the design of multi-rayed structures of residential buildings of various storeys.

Keywords:
«T-shaped» parent residential section, child residential sections, combinatorics, transposition, kinetics, combinatorial block, planimetry, stereometry, energy-efficient design.
Petrova M.M., Khafizov R.R.  Principles of formation of the functional and architectural-planning structure of institutions for orphansСтр.161
Resume:

Problem statement. This study analyzes positive examples of implemented institutions for orphans within five countries: Russia, Denmark, Germany, France, USA. Their functional and architectural-planning structure is studied in order to develop design principles and the main typological classification of modern institutions is highlighted. The object of the research is modern institutions for orphans implemented in the Russian Federation and abroad. The subject of the research is functional and architectural and planning solutions of institutions for orphans within the boundaries of five countries – Russia, Denmark, Germany, France and the United States. The purpose of the study is to develop principles and recommendations for the formation of a functional planning structure of institutions for orphans, which will help prepare a child for an independent life and shape his personality. Research objectives: to study the domestic and foreign experience of designing institutions for orphans; to form the basic principles of the functional and architectural-planning structure of institutions for orphans; draw up a typological classification of these institutions. Results. As a result of the analysis of domestic and foreign experience in designing institutions for orphans, the main principles of the functional planning structure have been identified and typological classification of modern institutions has been drawn up. Conclusions. Recommendations for the creation of institutions for orphans have been formulated and theoretical foundations for further research and implementation in this project activity have been identified.

Keywords:
architectural and planning structure, orphanage, family-type orphanage, boarding school, orphans, foreign architecture, domestic architecture.
 
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