New issues - Известия Казанского государственного архитектурно-строительного университета.

Включен в Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, определяемый ВАК

New issues

Title page / date-line


Maintenance №:1 Year:2020


ARCHITECTURE THEORY AND HISTORY, HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Zakirova T.R., Asadullin E.Z.  The development of types of public buildings in Kazan in the second half of the 1930s-the first half of the 1950s and the search for national identityСтр.7
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the article is to show the process of the formation of various types of public buildings in Kazan from the mid.-1930s to the mid.-1950s and to reveal a rather interesting search for national imagery in the architecture of the capital of Soviet Tataria during the very difficult period of the prewar, military and post-war years for the whole country. Results During this period, due to the lack of uniform rules and regulations, the development of functional planning schemes for public buildings took place in Kazan. In higher educational institutions, the composition of the premises is more expanded compared to the previous period, providing a more convenient and functionally developed scheme of the educational process. In the Palaces and Cultural Houses of Kazan, there are new trends in the enrichment of space, aimed at achieving expressiveness of the environment and subsequently developed into the principles of iridescent spaces. In addition to improving the existing types of buildings in Kazan in 1935, an attempt is being made to create a new multifunctional type of institution – the City Culture Center. The general tendency to search for the national identity of the republics of our country during the period under review, as well as the centuries-old appeal of Kazan architects to national sources and the appearance of the first architects and Tatars in the city, contributed to the development of national traditions in urban architecture. In accordance with the general thrust of Soviet architecture, in most cases, this was expressed in the mechanistic use of already existing traditional forms and decor. In Kazan, either these searches went along the path of creating a more or less organic alloy of the forms of Russian classicism with the national Tatar decor, or they used local architectural forms of past eras – the ancient Bolgars and similar forms of the Muslim East. At the same time, attempts are made to stylize and standardize forms of Bulgarian architecture; this could be used in the future industrialization of architectural forms. At the same time, they tried to use not only the architectural forms of the past but also the planning principles inherent in the Tatar national estate. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the architecture of Kazan was manifested in the fact that the new character of Soviet architecture was clearly manifested in the typology of public buildings of the city. This was expressed in the emergence in Kazan of new types of public buildings, contributing to the beginning of the implementation of the principles of socialism, the beginning of the formation of a unified system of cultural and public services intended for the whole people. Corresponding to the all-Union trends, the Tatar national traditions received a new understanding, which in the 1920s-the first half of the 1930s were barely noticeable, and in the second half of the 1930s-the first half of the 1950s they received their most widespread development, which is a useful example for the development of the modern architecture of Kazan.

Keywords:
public buildings, national traditions, soviet architecture.
Mukhitov R.K., Minnegulova Z.N.  «The River Museum» as a new form of preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of peoplesСтр.18
Resume:

Problem statement. In this article, the main task is to reveal the concept of the «Museum of the River», to consider and analyze the existing museums of the world related to the theme of water. Currently, there are many similar water museums: «The Water Museum», Styrum, Germany, «The Universe of Water» Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia, «The Water Museum», New York, USA, etc. They are interesting and diverse in their subjects, oriented to the history of the city water supply, but we are interested in the ethnographic aspect, which today seems to be relevant. Results. The main results of the study lie in the disclosure of the concept of «The River Museum». Identification of museums related to the theme of water abroad and in Russia in the content of ethnography of settlements. The article identifies ethnographic villages in the structure of the museum, the museum complex, as a form of preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of peoples. The current state and structure of water museums are analyzed with the identification of negative and positive sides. Conclusions. The Museum of the river is a cultural and educational institution, combining several topics related to natural reservoirs. This is an open-air museum as one of the most promising ways to preserve, study the history of the river, as well as the presentation and popularization of historical and cultural monuments, at the same time not only shows, lets in, but also converts the opportunity for visitors to participate through interactive expositions. The goal of the study is to uncover the role of «The River Museum» for society, as a new form of preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of peoples.

Keywords:
the water museum, ethnographic museums, historical and cultural heritage.
Tikhova Y.L., Kuleeva L.M.  Building a classification system for open architectural spacesСтр.27
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to build classifications of open spaces, which allow us to analyze them, both in the historical aspect and also satisfying modern trends in sustainable design. Results. To build a classification of open spaces, leading domestic and foreign studies devoted to this issue were analyzed. Then, based of this analysis, as well as the existing and historical urban development situation, an author’s classification of open spaces in the architectural environment is proposed. It is emphasized that the current models are built for industrial construction and cannot be applied to the analysis of open spaces from a position of sustainability. A sustainable design method is not only a modern trend in architectural practice, but is also considered as a method of solving many professional problems. That is why it became necessary to build a new classification, which, based on an analysis of the scale, type, function and form, will offer a new solution to the existing problem. Conclusions. The significance of the results for architecture lies in the justification of new qualification features for solving practical problems of architectural design.

Keywords:
open spaces, architectural environment, sustainable architectural environment, green environment, eco-friendly architectural environment.
Fazleev M.Sh., Shakirova A.F.  Architectural and planning organization of scientific and industrial exhibition of 1890 in KazanСтр.36
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the article is to identify the background to holding and architectural and planning organization of exhibition pavilions, buildings and structures of the Scientific and industrial exhibition of 1890. To assess the impact of the architectural heritage left over from the Scientific and industrial exhibition on the development of Kazan. Results. The main results of the research consist of the comparison and the analysis of archival, bibliographic and iconographic sources to reveal the process of creating and forming the architecture of buildings and structures of the scientific and industrial exhibition on the territory of Kazan. Based on the studied historical, town-planning and socio-economic aspects, the choice of the territory for the exhibition location and the construction of buildings and structures of the pavilions in urban development is justified. Conclusions. The significance of the results is to obtain new knowledge in the formation of the architecture of the exhibition pavilions, in identifying their regional features, as well as the ability to use the results during the drafting of new pavilions. The study of architectural and planning features of buildings and structures of the Scientific and industrial exhibition of 1890 in Kazan will allow making a more detailed description and identifying the authorship of the pavilions.

Keywords:
architecture of buildings and structures of the pre-revolutionary period, architectural and planning features, an exhibition pavilion, scientific and industrial exhibition.
HOUSES ARCHITECTURE. THE CREATIVE CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITIES
Ryabov N.F., Grachev P.V.  Kazan Anatomical Theater in the framework of the analogy «architecture – literature»Стр.45
Resume:

Problem statement. The importance of a balance between tangible and intangible heritage of historical cities and its preservation are fundamental to the interdisciplinary approach to historical landmarks examination. The objective of the present work is to apply the «Architecture-Literature» analogy to the significant landmark of the Kazan architectural text – the Anatomical Theatre of the Imperial Kazan University (1837) – aiming to characterise and study its universal semantic meanings. Results. The Latin inscription on the facade of the Anatomical Theatre ‘Hic locus est ubi mors gaudet succurrere vitae’ is the sufficient definition of the meaning of this Kazan landmark. The Theater is the perfect construction for its direct purpose – a place for dramatic turns in human destiny and for examination of the human nature. These meanings define the interest of the contemporary Russian homme de lettres (Yu.G. Zabusov, L.A. Danilkin, A. Sahibzadinov, and G.Sh. Yakhina) in this object-sign. For them and their readers it embodies the very spirit of the historical landmark, the way and meaning of lives, and the mission of its denizens. Literary concepts and terms can provide contemporary architects with understanding of urban realm as a space inextricably entwined with a mind transforming it. Conclusions. The achieved results can impact the development of interdisciplinary approach to examination of landmarks as of architectural phenomena of the urban environment they are situated in. Understanding the importance of intangible architectural heritage (in the present context we mean the specific description and depiction of classical architecture of the XIX century in literary texts) its essential to the identity and the spirit of any historical landmark.

Keywords:
architectural ensemble of the Imperial Kazan University, the Anatomical Theater, architect M. P. Korinfsky, architectural text, spirit of a place.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, RURAL SETTLEMENTS PLANNING
Arsenteva Y.P., Latypova M.S., Gafurova S.V.  Analysis of redevelopment of district’s planning structure of ZAC Seguin – Rives de Seine, Boulogne-Billancourt region, FranceСтр.55
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify effective principles for the living environment and public spaces as the element of the organization, used during the redevelopment of coastal industrial zones, which became desolate due to the obsolescence of their technical condition, using the example of the ZAC Seguin – Rives de Seine district of Boulogne-Billancourt region near Paris in France. Results. In the course of the study, the key principles of the space-planning organization of the living environment and public spaces, used in the framework of the redevelopment of industrial areas, taking into account the influence of the proximity factor to the water body, were identified. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry and urban planning practice lies in the possibility of applying the identified principles for the organization of the living environment and public spaces in the framework of redevelopment and integrated development of coastal industrial zones in the Russian Federation.

Keywords:
living environment, public spaces, coastal areas, redevelopment of industrial areas.
Ziyatdinov Z.Z., Mihalcheva S.G., Ziyatdinov T.Z.  The influence of the second home on the social efficiency of housingСтр.66
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to identify the most effective type of development based on the criteria of social results: on the one hand, multi-apartment housing with garden plots of its residents, on the other hand, cottage-estate development that does not involve the mass distribution of second homes. Results. The main results of the study are to determine the effectiveness of cottage development concerning apartment buildings and second homes of their residents based on one-time costs, operating costs and social results. Cottage-estate development occupies 17-28 % less territory and 24-33 % has a lower total estimated cost of construction compared to multi-apartment buildings with second homes of its residents. The annual operating costs of the cottage and estate development are 2,2 times less than the operating costs of apartment buildings and horticultural associations of their residents. Conclusion. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is the possibility of applying the results obtained in determining the strategy of housing construction and determining the types and number of floors of residential buildings in the development of master plans for small, medium and large cities in Russia.

Keywords:
garden house, cottage, gardening Association, second home, one-time costs, operating costs, social results, multi-apartment development, cottage development, individual housing construction.
BUILDING STRUCTURES, HOUSES
Zamaliev F.S., Fekir El Kahina.  Features of strength assessment of a steel-concrete bending element with prestressing reinforcement without adhesion to concreteСтр.76
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the research work is to analyze the methods for calculating prestressed metal and reinforced concrete beams and, based on them, to assess the stress-strain state of prestressed steel and reinforced concrete beams taking into account internal stresses. The tasks were to analyze domestic and foreign technical literature and to identify the state of the issue in assessing the stress-strain state of prestressed steel-concrete as isolated beams and beams as part of a ribbed monolithic overlap. Based on the analysis of the analytical expressions of prestressed metal and reinforced concrete beams, write down new dependences of the steel-reinforced concrete section, taking into account the features of the work of the composite prestressed section. Results. The main research results consist of an analysis of the current approach to assessing the strength of steel-reinforced concrete beams and slabs, metal and reinforced concrete shafts in identifying the stress-strain state of a bent prestressed steel-concrete element and deriving formulas for assessing the strength of prestressed insulated beams and beams in a ribbed ceiling. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in the identification of the stress-strain state of a bent steel-reinforced concrete element. The research results, analytical expressions for assessing the strength of the T-section of steel-reinforced concrete floors can be used in the construction of ribbed plates and beams of new buildings in steel-reinforced concrete, wood-concrete, precast-monolithic reinforced concrete versions and in the restoration of ceilings of buildings that have served their standard life.

Keywords:
steel-reinforced concrete beams and slabs, prestressed elements, stress state, voltage loss.
Kuznetsov I.L., Gainetdinov R.G.  Bolt assembly for connecting thin-walled cold-formed profiles with a trapezoidal wall using continuous sleevesСтр.85
Resume:

Problem statement. To carry out a numerical study of the stress-strain state of a node of thin-walled cold-formed profiles with a part of a concave flat wall (trapezoidal) when installing solid bushings in the area where the profile wall and the sheet profile do not come into contact. Determine the nature of the stress distribution at the installation sites of the bolts using solid sleeves. Results. The main results of the work consist of a numerical study of a new structural solution of the bolt joint assembly and determination of its stress-strain state according to the calculation results in the «ANSYS Workbench» software package. Conclusions. The significance of the research results for the construction industry lies in the fact that the new constructive solution of the assembly using continuous sleeves allows eliminating the gap between the sheet gusset and the trapezoidal profile wall, thereby bolting in this place and improving the actual operation of the assembly. It should be noted that the design of the connection unit with the proposed solution for the installation of elements in the form of continuous sleeves allows saving steel by 20-30 %, in contrast to the strengthening of the site with sheet steel.

Keywords:
stress-strain state of the bolt assembly, thin-walled cold-formed profile with a trapezoidal wall, sheet gusset plate, continuous sleeve.
Mirsayapov Ilizar T., Garifullin D.R.  Equations of the endurance of the reinforcement of a bending reinforced concrete element under regime repeated loadingСтр.93
Resume:

Problem statement. In reinforced concrete bending elements under the action of repeated cyclic loading, regardless of the loading regime, inelastic creep deformations appear and develop in the concrete of the compressed zone. For this reason, the concrete deformation conditions of the compressed zone and the longitudinal stretched reinforcement are non-stationary regardless of the loading mode. Results. Experimental and theoretical studies of the behavior of a reinforced concrete bending element under repeated cyclic loading and the established modes of deformation of the longitudinal reinforcement as part of the bending element are carried out. To assess the endurance of the reinforcement under such deformation regimes, studies have been conducted and equations of reinforcement endurance under different loading modes have been obtained using the methods of fracture mechanics of elastic-plastic materials. Based on the conducted research, an equation of rebar endurance was developed for practical calculations of reinforced concrete bending elements under regime repeated loads. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that the proposed method allows the most accurate assessment of the stress-strain state of the reinforcement and the processes of changing the strength of steel from the standpoint of fracture mechanics, which is a significant contribution to the theory of fatigue strength and provides steel savings of up to 20 % compared to existing methods.

Keywords:
reinforced concrete, reinforcement, endurance, regime loading, cyclic loading, bending element, fracture mechanics.
FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Mirsayapov Ilizar T., Aysin N.N.  Growth of vertical deformations of building in an influence zone of deep pitСтр.101
Resume:

Problem statement. Existing calculation methods of building settlement are based on the case of a single short-term static loading. These methods are not able to take into account the actual loading conditions of soil subgrade, including a change in the mechanical characteristics of soils in the previous stages of loading, the manifestation of rheological properties over time, the formation and development of cracks, as well as changes in loading conditions. This paper provides a methodology for calculating settlements, taking into account the abovementioned changes of soil parameters and loading conditions. Results. The proposed calculation method takes into account changes in the tridimensional stress-strain state of the soil, creep, unloading, prolonged loading, formation and development of micro- and macrocracks in the soil mass of the subgrade. It is based on a modified Pasternak model. The model modified by transforming the soil deformation diagrams under triaxial long-term loading. The ultimate stresses in the soil, taking into account the history of loading, formation and development of cracks in the soil, are determined based on the calculation model of the soil under three-axial compression. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry is that the developed method allows you to get more reliable results. The developed method was tested on a real reconstructed object. The deformation plots and settlement values obtained as a result of calculations were confirmed by the results of monitoring.

Keywords:
foundation, subgrade, soil, deep pit, interaction, rheology, calculation method, Pasternak, nonlinear deformation.
HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
Baidyusenov G.N., Abildinova S.K., Elemanova A.A., Sadykov R.A.  Efficiency of polyurethane foam pipes in the modernization of heating systemsСтр.109
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to assess the loss of thermal energy through the insulating structures of pipelines with polyurethane foam, taking into account the method of laying pipelines and additional factors that arise during the operation of heat networks. The technical potential for improving the efficiency of the use and transportation of thermal energy in heat supply systems depends on the condition of the heating networks. For modernization and reconstruction of heating systems of Kazakhstan currently used pre-insulated pipes made of polyurethane foam, which provide high reliability and minimal energy loss. The directions of work for modernization and reconstruction of existing heating systems are indicated. Results. Calculations of heat losses through the insulation of main pipelines with different standard diameters are carried out. In calculations, the standard technique of definition of a heat loss considering the additional factors connected with the operation of pipelines at the channel and channel-free laying of a heating system is used. The calculated specific heat loss of main pipelines with polyurethane foam insulation when the temperature of the medium does not exceed the standard values of heat loss under the same conditions. The obtained results create objective prerequisites for the revision and adjustment of the existing standards of heat loss in heat supply networks, which can increase the efficiency of heat energy transportation. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction field is that the proposed calculation methods confirm the reduction of normative and excess heat energy losses when using polyurethane foam pipes. The calculations show the effectiveness of the thermal insulation design of polyurethane foam and allow us to estimate the heat loss.

Keywords:
thermal insulation, pipelines, polyurethane foam, heat loss, thermal resistance.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, WATER CONSERVATION CONSTRUCTION
Khafizov A.R., Kamaletdinov F.F., Yakushkina A.B., Nedoseko I.V.  Construction regulatory systems to protect the banks of the Ufa river in the area of Ufa water intakeСтр.118
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to select the principal structures of the construction regulatory systems for the protection of the banks of the Ufa River in the area of water intakes in the city of Ufa. The task is set – based on the obtained scientific results of engineering-geological and hydrological research of the lower flow of the Ufa River in the area of three large water intakes of the city of Ufa to develop construction regulatory systems in the areas of water intakes. Development means selection of principal structures and justification of their main parameters. Results. According to the results of studies of modern channel processes’ parameters and analysis of trend of channel deformations, the main problems of the Ufa River in the area of three large water intakes of the city of Ufa have been identified: on the section of the Northern water intake – coastal erosion; on the Cogeneration plant-2 area – water level planting, on the section of the Southern water intake – shedding of the bank with local washing. To solve the identified problems, the following construction regulatory systems are proposed: extension of the existing shore attachment on the section of the Northern water intake; creation of longitudinal dam narrowing the bed on the Cogeneration plant-2 area; spur arrangement in combination with local attachment on the section of the Southern water intake. Conclusions. The significance of the obtained results for the construction industry consists in the development of basic construction regulatory systems, which take into account the channel processes and the trend of channel deformations at the site under consideration. Construction systems are designed for the three most likely channel processes: coastal erosion, water level planting and shore silting.

Keywords:
building regulatory systems, water intake, hydrological and engineering-geological investigations, channel deformations, level planting, spurs, longitudinal dams, coastal strengthening works.
BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Gayfutdinov R.F., Khafizov E.R.  Research of abrasive wear of crushed stone for highwaysСтр.128
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this research is to study the degree of influence of the surface roughness of stone materials on its abrasive wear under the influence of operational loads. Abrasive wear of crushed stone has a negative economic and environmental effect and needs to be studied to improve the quality of road materials. Although abrasive wear is well understood, the degree of influence of roughness on the wear resistance of crushed stone is not well known. Results. The main results of the study are to assess the wear resistance of crushed stone using the Micro-Deval test. Testing of two groups of materials, a mixture of gabbrods and diorite, with various surface roughness characteristics obtained artificially, showed a high effect of this parameter on the wear resistance of crushed stone. Thus, the effect of surface roughness on the abrasive wear of these materials amounted to more than 40 %. Conclusions. The significance of the research results for the construction industry lies in the possibility of choosing durable stone materials for the construction of roads. The high degree of influence of the surface roughness of stone materials on their abrasive wear must be taken into account when predicting the behavior of stone materials under the influence of operational loads.

Keywords:
crushed stone, abrasive wear, roughness, Micro-Deval, wear resistance.
Potapova L.I., Furer V.L., Kovalenko V.I.  The study of conformations of p-1-adamantylcalix[8]arene by IR-spectroscopy is the basis for the creation of a new generation of polymeric materialsСтр.138
Resume:

Problem statement. Determination of the spatial structure of the calix[8]arene to create potentially effective multifunctional stabilizers. The study of hydrogen bonds and the conformation of calix[8]arene molecules with a tert-butyl and adamantyl substituent in various states by IR-spectroscopy to determine the ability to adapt to various polymer compounds. Results. Hydrogen bonds and conformations of calix[8]arene molecules with p-tert-butyl and p-1-adamantyl substituents were studied by infrared spectroscopy in various states. Conformations, reactivity, charge distribution, and IR-spectra of calixarenes were calculated using the DFT method. The IR-spectra of calix[8]arenes were compared in the conformation of a folded loop and chair. Optimized molecular geometry reproduces experimental X-Ray data. A 20 kcal/mol chair conformation is less preferred than a folded loop conformation. The folded loop conformation is most stable in solid and solution. Hydrogen bonds determine the stability of this structure. In the p-1-adamantylcalix[8]arena, stronger hydrogen bonds are realized in comparison with the p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene. The observed IR-spectra were interpreted using the calculated potential energy distribution with quantum chemical force constants. The theoretical absorption curves calculated for the conformation of the folded loop correspond to the experimental IR-spectra of calix[8]arenes. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that new materials used for the thermal stabilization of film coatings, epoxy resins, as well as other polymer products, have been studied. The IR-spectra of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene and p-1-adamantylcalix-[8]arene were studied in the crystalline state, in solution, and at various temperatures. The calix[8]arenas occupy the conformation of a folded loop with a cyclic system of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. This conformation is more stable than the conformation of the chair. Theoretical infrared spectra are presented and characteristic bands for each conformation are determined. To create potentially effective multifunctional stabilizers, a capixarene platform was studied, which, due to its distinctive geometry, is able to adapt to various compounds, forming inclusion complexes via non-covalent bonds, Van der Waals interactions, and hydrogen bonds.

Keywords:
IR-spectroscopy, calixarenes, hydrogen bonding, quantum chemistry, conformation.
Smirnov D.S., Garaev T.R., Garipova D.R.  Modelling the properties of wall ceramics by regression analysisСтр.146
Resume:

Problem statement. The research data is to obtain mathematical models with a high degree of compression and water absorption of wall ceramic products, depending on the total content of aluminium oxides, titanium, fractions <0,001 mm, ductility and firing temperature for moderately ductile low-disperse clay raw materials of RT. Results. The main results of the study consist in obtaining statistical regression models that allow predicting strength and watering absorption for moderately ductile low-dispersing clay raw materials and based on this, quickly, without carrying out volumetric laboratory tests, adjusting mine surveying developments in the quarry or the production process as far as possible. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the preparation of an applied mathematical basis that provides the opportunity to optimize the operational characteristics of wall ceramics. The foundation has been laid for further statistical processing of data for clay deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan.

Keywords:
wall ceramics, compressive strength, firing temperature, water absorption, regression analysis.
Furer V.L., Kovalenko V.I.  Spectroscopic study of the complexation of gold with a phosphorus-containing dendrimerСтр.154
Resume:

Problem statement. This article discusses the interaction of phosphorus dendrimer with gold by experimental research on IR and Raman spectra and quantum-chemical calculations. It was necessary to explain why stable complexes are formed with the P=N?P=S link, whereas this does not occur with the isolated P=S bond. Results. A change in the geometrical parameters and a delocalization of the electric charge under the influence of gold have been detected. The bands in the experimental vibrational spectra of the dendrimer and its complex are classified. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the fact that new nanomaterials that can be used to create paints and varnishes, electrically conductive nano-paints, heat-insulating materials, and nano-concrete are obtained and investigated. The HOMO of the dendrimer molecule is located on the P=N?P=S link, while the LUMO is located on the terminal group. Substantial delocalization of the charge occurs in the P=N?P=S link, which results in a change in the reactivity of this group. The interaction energy and electron affinity for AuCl are higher than for the dendrimer. Therefore, with the formation of the complex, these values increase. The chemical potential and the electrophilicity index in the complex also increase.

Keywords:
dendrimer, infrared spectra, Raman spectra, normal vibrations, quantum chemistry.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION
Bogdanov R.R., Ibragimov R.A., Davlyatshin B.I.  Improving the device technology of shallow energy-efficient foundationsСтр.163
Resume:

Problem statement. The analysis of foreign experience in the construction of foundations of low-rise buildings shows that one of the most economical, energy-efficient and requiring little labour costs for the device is a shallow heat-insulated foundation. In this regard, it is important to study the features of the technology of their installation and insulation, taking into account the climatic conditions of our country. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimal thickness of the insulation of a shallow foundation. Results. Modelling and calculation in the «Elcut» software package revealed that the lack of freezing of soil under the basement of the foundation is possible with horizontal insulation of the blind area 1000 mm long and 50 mm thick insulation, with vertical insulation 100 mm thick. With this option of insulation, a reduction in the consumption of horizontal thermal insulation by 2 times, and vertical – by 1,5 times is achieved in comparison with the requirements of current standards. At the same time, significant savings are made on the labour costs of the insulation device. Conclusions. The significance of the results of the work for the construction industry is to increase the efficiency of insulation of shallow foundations while ensuring their operational reliability and rational use of the required materials.

Keywords:
shallow foundation, insulated Swedish plate, extruded polystyrene foam, heat engineering, Elcut.
Medyanik Y.V., Khafizov R.R.  Engineering in constructionСтр.172
Resume:

Problem statement. The aim of the work is to reveal the essence of engineering in construction; to determine the subject area and specific practical problems, the tool for solving which is engineering; to identify the functional dependencies of the participants of engineering activities in construction. Results. The subject area, tasks and classification of engineering in construction are presented taking into account the main stages of the implementation of the investment construction project. The place of an engineering company in the system of interaction between participants in investment and construction activities is indicated. The need for a clear definition and delineation of the functions of participants in engineering activities in construction for compliance with contractual discipline is shown. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry lies in a comprehensive analysis of engineering as an integral part of investment and construction activities, in determining the circle of participants and their functional dependence, which is necessary to identify the development potential and improve the engineering system in construction.

Keywords:
engineering, engineering and consulting services, functions and tasks of engineering, participants in engineering activities.
ROADS, SUBWAYS, AIRPORTS, BRIDGES AND TUNNELS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Gabdullin T.R., Kashipov R.F.  On the issue of improving the repair of cracks in pavementsСтр.181
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of the research is to improve the quality of repair and restoration work on pavements by improving the repair equipment, reducing the financial costs of the work, and minimizing the human participation in the repair work. Results. The main result of the study is the development of universal mounted milling equipment that can sequentially perform the following pavement repair operations: milling cracks to the required depth and width, cleaning them from milled granulate, dirt, dust, moisture and pouring (filling) into a bitumen crack heated by milling, thus ensuring reliable adhesion of the repair material to the road surface material. The result of this work is a firmly sealed crack. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the road-building industry consists in improving the quality of repair and restoration work on road surfaces through the use of the developed universal mounted milling equipment for repairing cracks in the road surfaces by sealing method.

Keywords:
design, equipment, repair, cracks, road surface, quality, method, profitability.
Petropavlovskikh O.K., Ibrаgimova A.A., Sadykov R.R., Gabitova L.I.  The effectiveness of project management in the construction of engineering structuresСтр.189
Resume:

Problem statement. The purpose of this work is to reflect the relevance of the development and use of project management for the construction and design of artificial structures, as well as transport infrastructure. The following tasks are defined: 1) to analyze the current state of project management in the construction of transport facilities; 2) to study the software systems used in the field of project management and available for the educational process of students of engineering specialities; 3) to determine the effectiveness of implementation and the prospects for the development of the methodology in Russia, as well as to identify examples. Results. The essence and principles of project management are studied. The optimal software systems related to the field of construction and design, namely management and, in addition, available in the educational process, have been identified. The analysis of the degree of implementation and the prospect of developing a methodology for effective project management in Russia based on foreign and domestic experience is carried out. Conclusions. The significance of the results for the construction industry is that the effective management of construction projects based on the use of advanced software, allows you to save time and money, the volume of work, as it gives the opportunity to design and advance to test the efficiency of engineering solutions and systems before the start of the construction process, and to promptly update the status of the project with the use of more effective innovative solutions during its execution. The information model is the main resource that includes data on all stages of design and construction of the transport system: from the key concept to the moment of operation.

Keywords:
information modelling, project management, BIM-technologies, transport construction, engineering structures, bridge, software, schedule, construction, model.
CONSTRUCTION MECHANICS
Mudrov A.G., Mudrova A.A.  Study of the efficiency of spatial mechanisms with a special structureСтр.199
Resume:

Problem statement. In recent years, construction technologies have begun to use devices whose basic mechanisms are spatial mechanisms with a special structure. To connect the links, they use only rotary joints on rolling or sliding bearings. Since the devices are new and original, protected by patents for inventions, it is necessary to check (study) their effectiveness, the main indicator of which is the efficiency coefficient (efficiency). The purpose of the study is to conduct theoretical and experimental analyses of the efficiency values of such mechanisms on a stand designed for this purpose. Results. As a result of the study of four-, five- and six-dimensional mechanisms on the proposed design of the stand, the values of efficiency from various forces or moments of useful and harmful resistances are determined, recommendations for the use of mechanisms in construction profile devices are given. Conclusions. The significance of the results obtained for the construction industry lies in the creation of new, effective multifunctional devices based on four-link, five-link and six-link spatial mechanisms with a special structure.

Keywords:
spatial mechanisms, rotational hinges, efficiency research bench, multi-functionality of mechanisms.
 
Russian (CIS)English (United Kingdom)

Search

Vinaora Visitors Counter

mod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_counter
mod_vvisit_counterToday38
mod_vvisit_counterYesterday69
mod_vvisit_counterThis week267
mod_vvisit_counterLast week433
mod_vvisit_counterThis month107
mod_vvisit_counterLast month1779
mod_vvisit_counterAll days702008

Online (12 hours ago): 2
Your IP: 192.168.1.44
,
Today: Дек 02, 2020